About: Suspension (chemistry) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8231 publications have been published within this topic receiving 145581 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a system of chemical reactions has been developed which permits the controlled growth of spherical silica particles of uniform size by means of hydrolysis of alkyl silicates and subsequent condensation of silicic acid in alcoholic solutions.
Abstract: A system of chemical reactions has been developed which permits the controlled growth of spherical silica particles of uniform size by means of hydrolysis of alkyl silicates and subsequent condensation of silicic acid in alcoholic solutions. Ammonia is used as a morphological catalyst. Particle sizes obtained in suspension range from less than 0.05 μ to 2 μ in diameter.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of microfiltration is presented, focusing on the formation of cakes, the behavior of suspension flows and particle transport in simple geometry ducts, and the formation and behavior of fouling layers including those resulting from macromolecules, colloids and particles.
Abstract: Although microfiltration is one of the oldest pressure-driven membrane processes, it is probably the least understood when it comes to the filtration of suspensions and macromolecules. Microfiltration is characterized by operation at low pressures, by high permeation fluxes, and by crossflow mode in flat or cylindrical geometries. The major limitation of microfiltration is membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of macromolecules, colloids and particles onto and into the microporous membrane. In this review, we analyze the various components of this problem by focusing on the formation of cakes, the behavior of suspension flows and particle transport in simple geometry ducts, and on the formation and behavior of fouling layers including those resulting from macromolecules, colloids and particles. Some of the work we report on is very recent or is still in progress and needs independent verification. With this understanding, we hope that the reader will be able to use these concepts for analyzing other systems and for investigating new module designs.
TL;DR: A survey of published knowledge classified according to the different concepts currently used to manufacture particles, microspheres or microcapsules, liposomes or other dispersed materials (like microfibers) is presented in this article.
Abstract: As particle design is presently a major development of supercritical fluids applications, mainly in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and specialty chemistry industries, number of publications are issued and numerous patents filed every year. This document presents a survey (that cannot pretend to be exhaustive!) of published knowledge classified according to the different concepts currently used to manufacture particles, microspheres or microcapsules, liposomes or other dispersed materials (like microfibers): RESS: This acronym refers to ‘Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions’; this process consists in solvating the product in the fluid and rapidly depressurizing this solution through an adequate nozzle, causing an extremely rapid nucleation of the product into a highly dispersed material. Known for long, this process is attractive due to the absence of organic solvent use; unfortunately, its application is restricted to products that present a reasonable solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide (low polarity compounds). GAS or SAS: These acronyms refer to ‘Gas (or Supercritical fluid) Anti-Solvent’, one specific implementation being SEDS (‘Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical Fluids’); this general concept consists in decreasing the solvent power of a polar liquid solvent in which the substrate is dissolved, by saturating it with carbon dioxide in supercritical conditions, causing the substrate precipitation or recrystallization. According to the solid morphology that is wished, various ways of implementation are available: GAS or SAS recrystallization: This process is mostly used for recrystallization of solid dissolved in a solvent with the aim of obtaining either small size particles or large crystals, depending on the growth rate controlled by the anti-solvent pressure variation rate; ASES: This name is rather used when micro- or nano-particles are expected; the process consists in pulverizing a solution of the substrate(s) in an organic solvent into a vessel swept by a supercritical fluid; SEDS: A specific implementation of ASES consists in co-pulverizing the substrate(s) solution and a stream of supercritical carbon dioxide through appropriate nozzles. PGSS: This acronym refers to ‘Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (or Suspensions)’: This process consists in dissolving a supercritical fluid into a liquid substrate, or a solution of the substrate(s) in a solvent, or a suspension of the substrate(s) in a solvent followed by a rapid depressurization of this mixture through a nozzle causing the formation of solid particles or liquid droplets according to the system. The use of supercritical fluids as chemical reaction media for material synthesis. Two processes are described: thermal decomposition in supercritical fluids and hydrothermal synthesis. We will successively detail the literature and patents for these four main process concepts, and related applications that have been claimed. Moreover, as we believe it is important to take into account the user's point-of-view, we will also present this survey in classifying the documents according three product objectives: particles (micro- or nano-) of a single component, microspheres and microcapsules of mixtures of active and carrier (or excipient) components, and particle coating.
TL;DR: In this article, the shape and size distribution and crystallinity of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, and very uniform and stable colloidal suspensions of the particles were synthesized.
Abstract: Synthesis of suspensions of nanosize particles of Fe3O4 was carried out in bulk aqueous solutions without the presence of surfactants. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were oxidized to γ-Fe2O3 by direct aeration of the suspension at 100 °C. The shape and size distribution and crystallinity of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Very uniform and stable colloidal suspensions of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in water could be synthesized. Oxidation of the colloidal system leads to γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles of much larger size than Fe3O4.
TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that the particle flux in probability space due to Brownian motion is the same as that which would be produced by the application of a certain "thermodynamic" force to each particle.
Abstract: The classical theory of Brownian motion applies to suspensions which are so dilute that each particle is effectively alone in infinite fluid. We consider here the modifications to the theory that are needed when rigid spherical particles are close enough to interact hydrodynamically. It is first shown that Brownian motion is a diffusion process of the conventional kind provided that the particle configuration does not change significantly during a viscous relaxation time. The original argument due to Einstein, which invokes an equilibrium situation, is generalized to show that the particle flux in probability space due to Brownian motion is the same as that which would be produced by the application of a certain ‘thermodynamic’ force to each particle. We then use this prescription to deduce the Brownian diffusivities in two -different types of situation. The first concerns a dilute homogeneous suspension which is being deformed, and the relative translational diffusivity of two rigid spherical particles with a given separation is calculated from the properties of the low-Reynolds-number flow due to two spheres moving under equal and opposite forces. The second concerns a suspension in which there is a gradient of concentration of particles. The thermodynamic force on each particle in this case is shown to be equal to the gradient of the chemical potential of the particles, which brings considerations of the multi-particle excluded volume into the problem. Determination of the particle flux due to the action of this force is equivalent to determination of the sedimentation velocity of particles falling through fluid under gravity, for which a theoretical result correct to the first order in volume fraction of the particles is available, The diffusivity of the particles is found to increase slowly as the concentration rises from zero. These results are generalized to the case of a (dilute) inhomogeneous suspension of several different species of spherical particle, and expressions are obtained for the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the diffusivity matrix. Numerical values of all the relevant hydrodynamic functions are given for the case of spheres of uniform size.