Topic

# Symmetric-key algorithm

About: Symmetric-key algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6360 publications have been published within this topic receiving 113533 citations. The topic is also known as: Common key cryptosystem & symmetric ciphers.

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TL;DR: The two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme that uses the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks.

Abstract: Encryption of images is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of images such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing and sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps, chaos-based encryption has suggested a new and efficient way to deal with the intractable problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. In this paper, the two-dimensional chaotic cat map is generalized to 3D for designing a real-time secure symmetric encryption scheme. This new scheme employs the 3D cat map to shuffle the positions (and, if desired, grey values as well) of image pixels and uses another chaotic map to confuse the relationship between the cipher-image and the plain-image, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to statistical and differential attacks. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security and fast encryption speed of the new scheme.

1,904 citations

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30 Oct 2006TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) scheme for the multi-user setting, where queries to the server can be chosen adaptively during the execution of the search.

Abstract: Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) allows a party to outsource the storage of its data to another party (a server) in a private manner, while maintaining the ability to selectively search over it. This problem has been the focus of active research in recent years. In this paper we show two solutions to SSE that simultaneously enjoy the following properties: Both solutions are more efficient than all previous constant-round schemes. In particular, the work performed by the server per returned document is constant as opposed to linear in the size of the data. Both solutions enjoy stronger security guarantees than previous constant-round schemes. In fact, we point out subtle but serious problems with previous notions of security for SSE, and show how to design constructions which avoid these pitfalls. Further, our second solution also achieves what we call adaptive SSE security, where queries to the server can be chosen adaptively (by the adversary) during the execution of the search; this notion is both important in practice and has not been previously considered.Surprisingly, despite being more secure and more efficient, our SSE schemes are remarkably simple. We consider the simplicity of both solutions as an important step towards the deployment of SSE technologies.As an additional contribution, we also consider multi-user SSE. All prior work on SSE studied the setting where only the owner of the data is capable of submitting search queries. We consider the natural extension where an arbitrary group of parties other than the owner can submit search queries. We formally define SSE in the multi-user setting, and present an efficient construction that achieves better performance than simply using access control mechanisms.

1,673 citations

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06 May 2001TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a formalism for the analysis of key exchange protocols that combines previous definitional approaches and results in a definition of security that enjoys some important analytical benefits: (i) any key exchange protocol that satisfies the security definition can be composed with symmetric encryption and authentication functions to provide provably secure communication channels.

Abstract: We present a formalism for the analysis of key-exchange protocols that combines previous definitional approaches and results in a definition of security that enjoys some important analytical benefits: (i) any key-exchange protocol that satisfies the security definition can be composed with symmetric encryption and authentication functions to provide provably secure communication channels (as defined here); and (ii) the definition allows for simple modular proofs of security: one can design and prove security of key-exchange protocols in an idealized model where the communication links are perfectly authenticated, and then translate them using general tools to obtain security in the realistic setting of adversary-controlled links.
We exemplify the usability of our results by applying them to obtain the proof of two classes of key-exchange protocols, Diffie-Hellman and key-transport, authenticated via symmetric or asymmetric techniques.

1,584 citations

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01 Jan 2003

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a survey of the most popular methods for teaching creativity in the field of cryptography and apply them in the context of public-key cryptography and RSA.

Abstract: NOTATION PREFACE CHAPTER 0 READER'S GUIDE CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW PART ONE SYMMETRIC CIPHERS CHAPTER 2 CLASSICAL ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES CHAPTER 3 BLOCK CIPHERS AND THE DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCTION TO FINITE FIELDS CHAPTER 5 ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD CHAPTER 6 MORE ON SYMMETRIC CIPHERS CHAPTER 7 CONFIDENTIALITY USING SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION PART TWO PUBLIC-KEY ENCRYPTION AND HASH FUNCTIONS CHAPTER 8 INTRODUCTION TO NUMBER THEORY CHAPTER 9 PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND RSA CHAPTER 10 KEY MANAGEMENT OTHER PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS CHAPTER 11 MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION AND HASH FUNCTIONS 1 CHAPTER 12 HASH AND MAC ALGORITHMS CHAPTER 13 DIGITAL SIGNATURES AND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS PART THREE NETWORK SECURITY PRACTICE CHAPTER 14 AUTHENTICATION APPLICATIONS CHAPTER 15 ELECTRONIC MAIL SECURITY CHAPTER 16 IP SECURITY CHAPTER 17 WEB SECURITY PART FOUR SYSTEM SECURITY CHAPTER 18 INTRUDERS CHAPTER 19 MALICIOUS SOFTWARE CHAPTER 20 FIREWALLS APPENDICES APPENDIX A STANDARDS AND STANDARD-SETTING ORGANIZATIONS APPENDIX B PROJECTS FOR TEACHING CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY ONLINE APPENDICES APPENDIX C SIMPLIFIED DES APPENDIX D THE MEANING OF mod APPENDIX E MORE ON SIMPLIFIED AES APPENDIX F KNAPSACK PUBLIC-KEY ALGORITHM APPENDIX G PROOF OF THE DIGITAL SIGNATURE ALGORITHM GLOSSARY REFERENCES INDEX LIST OF ACRONYMS

1,569 citations

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TL;DR: A new construction of ring signatures is proposed, which is unconditionally signer-ambiguous, provably secure in the random oracle model, and exceptionally efficient: adding each ring member increases the cost of signing or verifying by a single modular multiplication and a single symmetric encryption.

Abstract: In this paper we formalize the notion of a ring signature, which makes it possible to specify a set of possible signers without revealing which member actually produced the signature. Unlike group signatures, ring signatures have no group managers, no setup procedures, no revocation procedures, and no coordination: any user can choose any set of possible signers that includes himself, and sign any message by using his secret key and the others' public keys, without getting their approval or assistance. Ring signatures provide an elegant way to leak authoritative secrets in an anonymous way, to sign casual email in a way which can only be verified by its intended recipient, and to solve other problems in multiparty computations. The main contribution of this paper is a new construction of such signatures which is unconditionally signer-ambiguous, provably secure in the random oracle model, and exceptionally efficient: adding each ring member increases the cost of signing or verifying by a single modular multiplication and a single symmetric encryption.

1,516 citations