Topic

# Synchronization

About: Synchronization is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29229 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 462676 citation(s). The topic is also known as: synchronisation.

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CA Technologies

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the concept of one event happening before another in a distributed system is examined, and a distributed algorithm is given for synchronizing a system of logical clocks which can be used to totally order the events.

Abstract: The concept of one event happening before another in a distributed system is examined, and is shown to define a partial ordering of the events. A distributed algorithm is given for synchronizing a system of logical clocks which can be used to totally order the events. The use of the total ordering is illustrated with a method for solving synchronization problems. The algorithm is then specialized for synchronizing physical clocks, and a bound is derived on how far out of synchrony the clocks can become.

8,352 citations

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01 Jan 2001TL;DR: This work discusseschronization of complex dynamics by external forces, which involves synchronization of self-sustained oscillators and their phase, and its applications in oscillatory media and complex systems.

Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction Part I. Synchronization Without Formulae: 2. Basic notions: the self-sustained oscillator and its phase 3. Synchronization of a periodic oscillator by external force 4. Synchronization of two and many oscillators 5. Synchronization of chaotic systems 6. Detecting synchronization in experiments Part II. Phase Locking and Frequency Entrainment: 7. Synchronization of periodic oscillators by periodic external action 8. Mutual synchronization of two interacting periodic oscillators 9. Synchronization in the presence of noise 10. Phase synchronization of chaotic systems 11. Synchronization in oscillatory media 12. Populations of globally coupled oscillators Part III. Synchronization of Chaotic Systems: 13. Complete synchronization I: basic concepts 14. Complete synchronization II: generalizations and complex systems 15. Synchronization of complex dynamics by external forces Appendix 1. Discovery of synchronization by Christiaan Huygens Appendix 2. Instantaneous phase and frequency of a signal References Index.

6,169 citations

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TL;DR: A rapid synchronization method is presented for an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system using either a continuous transmission or a burst operation over a frequency-selective channel.

Abstract: A rapid synchronization method is presented for an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system using either a continuous transmission or a burst operation over a frequency-selective channel. The presence of a signal can be detected upon the receipt of just one training sequence of two symbols. The start of the frame and the beginning of the symbol can be found, and carrier frequency offsets of many subchannels spacings can be corrected. The algorithms operate near the Cramer-Rao lower bound for the variance of the frequency offset estimate, and the inherent averaging over many subcarriers allows acquisition at very low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

3,348 citations

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TL;DR: The advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology are reported and the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections are overviewed.

Abstract: Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

2,552 citations

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09 Dec 2002TL;DR: Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) as discussed by the authors is a scheme in which nodes send reference beacons to their neighbors using physical-layer broadcasts, and receivers use their arrival time as a point of reference for comparing their clocks.

Abstract: Recent advances in miniaturization and low-cost, low-power design have led to active research in large-scale networks of small, wireless, low-power sensors and actuators. Time synchronization is critical in sensor networks for diverse purposes including sensor data fusion, coordinated actuation, and power-efficient duty cycling. Though the clock accuracy and precision requirements are often stricter than in traditional distributed systems, strict energy constraints limit the resources available to meet these goals.We present Reference-Broadcast Synchronization, a scheme in which nodes send reference beacons to their neighbors using physical-layer broadcasts. A reference broadcast does not contain an explicit timestamp; instead, receivers use its arrival time as a point of reference for comparing their clocks. In this paper, we use measurements from two wireless implementations to show that removing the sender's nondeterminism from the critical path in this way produces high-precision clock agreement (1.85 ± 1.28μsec, using off-the-shelf 802.11 wireless Ethernet), while using minimal energy. We also describe a novel algorithm that uses this same broadcast property to federate clocks across broadcast domains with a slow decay in precision (3.68 ± 2.57μsec after 4 hops). RBS can be used without external references, forming a precise relative timescale, or can maintain microsecond-level synchronization to an external timescale such as UTC. We show a significant improvement over the Network Time Protocol (NTP) under similar conditions.

2,492 citations