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System on a chip

About: System on a chip is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11331 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 147395 citation(s). The topic is also known as: system-on-a-chip & SOC.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Luca Benini1, G. De Micheli2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2002-IEEE Computer
TL;DR: Focusing on using probabilistic metrics such as average values or variance to quantify design objectives such as performance and power will lead to a major change in SoC design methodologies.

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Abstract: On-chip micronetworks, designed with a layered methodology, will meet the distinctive challenges of providing functionally correct, reliable operation of interacting system-on-chip components. A system on chip (SoC) can provide an integrated solution to challenging design problems in the telecommunications, multimedia, and consumer electronics domains. Much of the progress in these fields hinges on the designers' ability to conceive complex electronic engines under strong time-to-market pressure. Success will require using appropriate design and process technologies, as well as interconnecting existing components reliably in a plug-and-play fashion. Focusing on using probabilistic metrics such as average values or variance to quantify design objectives such as performance and power will lead to a major change in SoC design methodologies. Overall, these designs will be based on both deterministic and stochastic models. Creating complex SoCs requires a modular, component-based approach to both hardware and software design. Despite numerous challenges, the authors believe that developers will solve the problems of designing SoC networks. At the same time, they believe that a layered micronetwork design methodology will likely be the only path to mastering the complexity of future SoC designs.

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3,737 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Aug 2002-
TL;DR: A packet switched platform for single chip systems which scales well to an arbitrary number of processor like resources which is the onchip communication infrastructure comprising the physical layer, the data link layer and the network layer of the OSI protocol stack.

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Abstract: We propose a packet switched platform for single chip systems which scales well to an arbitrary number of processor like resources. The platform, which we call Network-on-Chip (NOC), includes both the architecture and the design methodology. The NOC architecture is a m/spl times/n mesh of switches and resources are placed on the slots formed by the switches. We assume a direct layout of the 2-D mesh of switches and resources providing physical- and architectural-level design integration. Each switch is connected to one resource and four neighboring switches, and each resource is connected to one switch. A resource can be a processor core, memory, an FPGA, a custom hardware block or any other intellectual property (IP) block, which fits into the available slot and complies with the interface of the NOC. The NOC architecture essentially is the onchip communication infrastructure comprising the physical layer, the data link layer and the network layer of the OSI protocol stack. We define the concept of a region, which occupies an area of any number of resources and switches. This concept allows the NOC to accommodate large resources such as large memory banks, FPGA areas, or special purpose computation resources such as high performance multi-processors. The NOC design methodology consists of two phases. In the first phase a concrete architecture is derived from the general NOC template. The concrete architecture defines the number of switches and shape of the network, the kind and shape of regions and the number and kind of resources. The second phase maps the application onto the concrete architecture to form a concrete product.

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1,277 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Chen Sun1, Chen Sun2, Mark T. Wade3, Yunsup Lee1  +21 moreInstitutions (4)
24 Dec 2015-Nature
TL;DR: This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic–photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers.

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Abstract: An electronic–photonic microprocessor chip manufactured using a conventional microelectronics foundry process is demonstrated; the chip contains 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components and directly uses light to communicate to other chips. The rapid transfer of data between chips in computer systems and data centres has become one of the bottlenecks in modern information processing. One way of increasing speeds is to use optical connections rather than electrical wires and the past decade has seen significant efforts to develop silicon-based nanophotonic approaches to integrate such links within silicon chips, but incompatibility between the manufacturing processes used in electronics and photonics has proved a hindrance. Now Chen Sun et al. describe a 'system on a chip' microprocessor that successfully integrates electronics and photonics yet is produced using standard microelectronic chip fabrication techniques. The resulting microprocessor combines 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components and can communicate optically with the outside world. This result promises a way forward for new fast, low-power computing systems architectures. Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems—from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome1,2,3 by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic–photonic systems4,5,6,7 enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices8. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic–photonic chips9,10,11 are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic–photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a ‘zero-change’ approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics12, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors13,14,15,16. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic–photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers.

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854 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results confirm the unique benefits for future generations of CMPs that can be achieved by bringing optics into the chip in the form of photonic NoCs, as well as a comparative power analysis of a photonic versus an electronic NoC.

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Abstract: The design and performance of next-generation chip multiprocessors (CMPs) will be bound by the limited amount of power that can be dissipated on a single die We present photonic networks-on-chip (NoC) as a solution to reduce the impact of intra-chip and off-chip communication on the overall power budget A photonic interconnection network can deliver higher bandwidth and lower latencies with significantly lower power dissipation We explain why on-chip photonic communication has recently become a feasible opportunity and explore the challenges that need to be addressed to realize its implementation We introduce a novel hybrid micro-architecture for NoCs combining a broadband photonic circuit-switched network with an electronic overlay packet-switched control network We address the critical design issues including: topology, routing algorithms, deadlock avoidance, and path-setup/tear-down procedures We present experimental results obtained with POINTS, an event-driven simulator specifically developed to analyze the proposed idea, as well as a comparative power analysis of a photonic versus an electronic NoC Overall, these results confirm the unique benefits for future generations of CMPs that can be achieved by bringing optics into the chip in the form of photonic NoCs

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853 citations


13


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Srinivasan Murali1, G. De Micheli1Institutions (1)
16 Feb 2004-
TL;DR: NMAP is presented, a fast algorithm that maps the cores onto a mesh NoC architecture under bandwidth constraints, minimizing the average communication delay, and the NMAP algorithm is presented for both single minimum-path routing and split-traffic routing.

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Abstract: We address the design of complex monolithic systems, where processing cores generate and consume a varying and large amount of data, thus bringing the communication links to the edge of congestion. Typical applications are in the area of multi-media processing. We consider a mesh-based networks on chip (NoC) architecture, and we explore the assignment of cores to mesh cross-points so that the traffic on links satisfies bandwidth constraints. A single-path deterministic routing between the cores places high bandwidth demands on the links. The bandwidth requirements can be significantly reduced by splitting the traffic between the cores across multiple paths. In this paper, we present NMAP, a fast algorithm that maps the cores onto a mesh NoC architecture under bandwidth constraints, minimizing the average communication delay. The NMAP algorithm is presented for both single minimum-path routing and split-traffic routing. The algorithm is applied to a benchmark DSP design and the resulting NoC is built and simulated at cycle accurate level in SystemC using macros from the /spl times/pipes library. Also, experiments with six video processing applications show significant savings in bandwidth and communication cost for NMAP algorithm when compared to existing algorithms.

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702 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021247
2020327
2019360
2018426
2017397

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Luca Benini

52 papers, 7.2K citations

Tughrul Arslan

32 papers, 302 citations

Kees Goossens

27 papers, 949 citations

Krishnendu Chakrabarty

23 papers, 598 citations

Ahmed Amine Jerraya

20 papers, 824 citations