About: Taenia solium is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2932 publications have been published within this topic receiving 69569 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Utrecht University1, University of Florida2, Australian National University3, University of Zurich4, Technical University of Denmark5, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp6, Boston Children's Hospital7, University of Kelaniya8, Université catholique de Louvain9, World Health Organization10, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention11
TL;DR: The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards, finding that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
Abstract: Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety throughout the food chain by incorporating these estimates into policy development at national and international levels.
TL;DR: An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed for immunodiagnosing human cysticercosis and identified seven major glycoprotein bands that are commonly recognized by virtually all serum and/or CSF samples from patients with confirmed cysticERCosis.
Abstract: An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed for immunodiagnosing human cysticercosis. The assay uses lentil-lectin, affinity-purified glycoprotein antigens. A battery of 532 serum and 46 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (148 cases of parasitologically confirmed cysticercosis, 54 healthy controls, and 18 types of heterologous infections [376 cases]) were used to ascertain the assay's efficacy. All but three of the samples from cases of confirmed cysticercosis were positive; none of the samples from healthy controls or heterologous infections reacted to any of the diagnostic bands. Thus, the assay is 98% sensitive and 100% specific. We identified seven major glycoprotein bands that are commonly recognized by virtually all serum and/or CSF samples from patients with confirmed cysticercosis. There was no significant difference in test performance when CSF was compared with serum. The EITB assay is highly reproducible and simple to perform, and the reagents (including the antigens blotted onto strips) are very stable.
TL;DR: Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is provided based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data and Interpretation permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty.
Abstract: Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute--histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major--lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor--lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic--evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiologic criterion.
TL;DR: Clinical manifestations vary because of the variable number, size, and location of the cysts and the immune response of the host.
Abstract: The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) infects the human nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis. This disease is one of the main causes of epileptic seizures in many less developed countries and is also increasingly seen in more developed countries because of immigration from endemic areas. Little information is available on the natural evolution of taeniasis or cysticercosis. Available therapeutic measures include steroids, treatments for symptoms, surgery, and, more controversially, antiparasitic drugs to kill brain parasites. Efforts to control and eliminate this disease are underway through antiparasitic treatment of endemic populations, development of pig vaccines, and other measures.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute1, National Autonomous University of Mexico2, University of Buenos Aires3, Iowa State University4, University of Zurich5, University of the Republic6, University of Oxford7, Beijing Institute of Genomics8, University of Toronto9, University of Würzburg10, Natural History Museum11, National University of Ireland, Galway12, University of Calgary13, McGill University14
TL;DR: An analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma offers insights into the evolution of parasitism and identifies new potential drug targets.
Abstract: Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.
Trending Questions (10)