About: TEC is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5119 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 84696 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 May 1998-Radio Science
TL;DR: In this paper, a technique for retrieving the global distribution of vertical total electron content (TEC) from GPS-based measurements is described, based on interpolating TEC within triangular tiles that tessellate the ionosphere modeled as a thin spherical shell.
Abstract: A worldwide network of receivers tracking the transmissions of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites represents a new source of ionospheric data that is globally distributed and continuously available. We describe a technique for retrieving the global distribution of vertical total electron content (TEC) from GPS-based measurements. The approach is based on interpolating TEC within triangular tiles that tessellate the ionosphere modeled as a thin spherical shell. The high spatial resolution of pixel-based methods, where widely separated regions can be retrieved independently of each other, is combined with the efficient retrieval of gradients characteristic of polynomial fitting. TEC predictions from climatological models are incorporated as simulated data to bridge significant gaps between measurements. Time sequences of global TEC maps are formed by incrementally updating the most recent retrieval with the newest data as it becomes available. This Kalman filtering approach smooths the maps in time, and provides time-resolved covariance information, useful for mapping the formal error of each global TEC retrieval. Preliminary comparisons with independent vertical TEC data, available from the TOPEX dual-frequency altimeter, suggest that the maps can accurately reproduce spatial and temporal ionospheric variations over latitudes ranging from equatorial to about ±65°.
11 Jul 2011-Nano Letters
TL;DR: The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K.
Abstract: The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range with a room temperature value of (−8.0 ± 0.7) × 10–6 K–1. The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect must be accounted for in the interpretation of experimental data taken at cryogenic or elevated temperatures.
01 Apr 1998-The EMBO Journal
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol‐3,4,5‐trisphosphate interacting with the PH domain acts as an upstream activation signal for Tec kinases, resulting in Tec kinase‐dependent phospholipase Cγ tyrosine phosphorylation and inositol trisph phosphate production.
Abstract: Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in signal transduction events initiated by cell surface receptors from a broad range of cell types, including an essential role in B-cell development. A unique feature of several Tec members among known tyrosine kinases is the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We directly demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3) interacting with the PH domain acts as an upstream activation signal for Tec kinases, resulting in Tec kinase-dependent phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) tyrosine phosphorylation and inositol trisphosphate production. In addition, we show that this pathway is blocked when an SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP)-dependent inhibitory receptor is engaged. Together, our results suggest a general mechanism whereby PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 regulates receptor-dependent calcium signals through the function of Tec kinases.
08 Apr 2004-Annales Geophysicae
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies by the total electron content (TEC) derived from a ground-based receiver of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
Abstract: . In this paper we examine pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies by the total electron content (TEC) derived from a ground-based receiver of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A 15-day running median of the TEC and the associated inter-quartile range (IQR) are utilized as a reference for identifying abnormal signals during all of the 20M≥6.0 earthquakes in the Taiwan area from September 1999 to December 2002. Results show that the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies appear during 18:00–22:00LT (LT=UT+8h) within 5 days prior to 16 of the 20M≥6.0 earthquakes. This success rate of 80% (=16/20%) suggests that the GPS TEC is useful to register pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies appearing before large earthquakes. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions)
01 Dec 2006-Reviews of Geophysics
TL;DR: In this paper, the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) is a parameter widely used in studies of the near-Earth plasma environment, and a comprehensive summary of pre-GPS storm studies is needed to set the base for progress in the GPS era.
Abstract:  The ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) is a parameter widely used in studies of the near-Earth plasma environment. The scientific use of TEC appeared early in the artificial satellite era, and among its many contributions were fundamental insights into how the ionosphere responds to geomagnetic storms. While many excellent reviews of solar-terrestrial disturbances exist in the literature, none have concentrated on the TEC parameter per se. With new TEC data sets increasingly available from the Global Positioning System (GPS), a comprehensive summary of pre-GPS storm studies is needed to set the base for progress in the GPS era. This review summarizes past case studies, describes statistical occurrence pattern, and identifies responsible mechanisms validated via modeling. It presents a new set of results of TEC disturbance patterns during 180 geomagnetic storms to describe seasonal and solar cycle effects. It concludes with a set of open questions that require additional study.
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