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Template matching

About: Template matching is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11420 publications have been published within this topic receiving 158581 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper organizes this material by establishing the relationship between the variations in the images and the type of registration techniques which can most appropriately be applied, and establishing a framework for understanding the merits and relationships between the wide variety of existing techniques.
Abstract: Registration is a fundamental task in image processing used to match two or more pictures taken, for example, at different times, from different sensors, or from different viewpoints. Virtually all large systems which evaluate images require the registration of images, or a closely related operation, as an intermediate step. Specific examples of systems where image registration is a significant component include matching a target with a real-time image of a scene for target recognition, monitoring global land usage using satellite images, matching stereo images to recover shape for autonomous navigation, and aligning images from different medical modalities for diagnosis.Over the years, a broad range of techniques has been developed for various types of data and problems. These techniques have been independently studied for several different applications, resulting in a large body of research. This paper organizes this material by establishing the relationship between the variations in the images and the type of registration techniques which can most appropriately be applied. Three major types of variations are distinguished. The first type are the variations due to the differences in acquisition which cause the images to be misaligned. To register images, a spatial transformation is found which will remove these variations. The class of transformations which must be searched to find the optimal transformation is determined by knowledge about the variations of this type. The transformation class in turn influences the general technique that should be taken. The second type of variations are those which are also due to differences in acquisition, but cannot be modeled easily such as lighting and atmospheric conditions. This type usually effects intensity values, but they may also be spatial, such as perspective distortions. The third type of variations are differences in the images that are of interest such as object movements, growths, or other scene changes. Variations of the second and third type are not directly removed by registration, but they make registration more difficult since an exact match is no longer possible. In particular, it is critical that variations of the third type are not removed. Knowledge about the characteristics of each type of variation effect the choice of feature space, similarity measure, search space, and search strategy which will make up the final technique. All registration techniques can be viewed as different combinations of these choices. This framework is useful for understanding the merits and relationships between the wide variety of existing techniques and for assisting in the selection of the most suitable technique for a specific problem.

4,769 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two new algorithms for computer recognition of human faces, one based on the computation of a set of geometrical features, such as nose width and length, mouth position, and chin shape, and the second based on almost-gray-level template matching are presented.
Abstract: Two new algorithms for computer recognition of human faces, one based on the computation of a set of geometrical features, such as nose width and length, mouth position, and chin shape, and the second based on almost-gray-level template matching, are presented. The results obtained for the testing sets show about 90% correct recognition using geometrical features and perfect recognition using template matching. >

2,671 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A hierarchical system that closely follows the organization of visual cortex and builds an increasingly complex and invariant feature representation by alternating between a template matching and a maximum pooling operation is described.
Abstract: We introduce a new general framework for the recognition of complex visual scenes, which is motivated by biology: We describe a hierarchical system that closely follows the organization of visual cortex and builds an increasingly complex and invariant feature representation by alternating between a template matching and a maximum pooling operation. We demonstrate the strength of the approach on a range of recognition tasks: From invariant single object recognition in clutter to multiclass categorization problems and complex scene understanding tasks that rely on the recognition of both shape-based as well as texture-based objects. Given the biological constraints that the system had to satisfy, the approach performs surprisingly well: It has the capability of learning from only a few training examples and competes with state-of-the-art systems. We also discuss the existence of a universal, redundant dictionary of features that could handle the recognition of most object categories. In addition to its relevance for computer vision, the success of this approach suggests a plausibility proof for a class of feedforward models of object recognition in cortex

1,779 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: The objectives of accurate stereo matching, especially at object boundaries, robustness against recording or illumination changes and efficiency of the calculation are considered, which lead to the proposed semi-global matching method that performs pixelwise matching based on mutual information and the approximation of a global smoothness constraint.
Abstract: This paper considers the objectives of accurate stereo matching, especially at object boundaries, robustness against recording or illumination changes and efficiency of the calculation. These objectives lead to the proposed semi-global matching method that performs pixelwise matching based on mutual information and the approximation of a global smoothness constraint. Occlusions are detected and disparities determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Additionally, an extension for multi-baseline stereo images is presented. There are two novel contributions. Firstly, a hierarchical calculation of mutual information based matching is shown, which is almost as fast as intensity based matching. Secondly, an approximation of a global cost calculation is proposed that can be performed in a time that is linear to the number of pixels and disparities. The implementation requires just 1 second on typical images.

1,424 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Oct 1998
TL;DR: An end-to-end method for extracting moving targets from a real-time video stream, classifying them into predefined categories according to image-based properties, and then robustly tracking them is described.
Abstract: This paper describes an end-to-end method for extracting moving targets from a real-time video stream, classifying them into predefined categories according to image-based properties, and then robustly tracking them. Moving targets are detected using the pixel wise difference between consecutive image frames. A classification metric is applied these targets with a temporal consistency constraint to classify them into three categories: human, vehicle or background clutter. Once classified targets are tracked by a combination of temporal differencing and template matching. The resulting system robustly identifies targets of interest, rejects background clutter and continually tracks over large distances and periods of time despite occlusions, appearance changes and cessation of target motion.

1,278 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202350
2022128
2021215
2020377
2019495
2018463