About: Tetanus is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6188 publications have been published within this topic receiving 96670 citations. The topic is also known as: Infection due to Clostridium tetani (disorder) & Tetanus (disorder).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.
Abstract: In October 2011, in an effort to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that unvaccinated pregnant women receive a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap). Vaccination of women with Tdap during pregnancy is expected to provide some protection to infants from pertussis until they are old enough to be vaccinated themselves. Tdap given to pregnant women will stimulate the development of maternal antipertussis antibodies, which will pass through the placenta, likely providing the newborn with protection against pertussis in early life, and will protect the mother from pertussis around the time of delivery, making her less likely to become infected and transmit pertussis to her infant. The 2011 Tdap recommendation did not call for vaccinating pregnant women previously vaccinated with Tdap. On October 24, 2012, ACIP voted to recommend use of Tdap during every pregnancy. This report summarizes data considered and conclusions made by ACIP and provides guidance for implementing its recommendations. These updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.
TL;DR: Like other multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccines, the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine demonstrated good efficacy against mild and typical pertussi and also may have some efficacy against B parapertussis, although side reactions were significantly less afterDTaP compared with DTP.
Abstract: Background. The goal of the trial was to determine the efficacy of a multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine against Bordetella illnesses in comparison with a whole-cell product and DT. Design. In a randomized, double-blind fashion, 2- to 4-month-old infants received 4 doses of either DTP or DTaP vaccine at 3, 4.5, 6, and 15 to 18 months of age. The controls received 3 doses (3, 4.5, 15 to 18 months of age) of DT vaccine. The DTP vaccine was Lederle adsorbed vaccine (licensed in the United States) and DTaP was Lederle/Takeda adsorbed vaccine. Follow-up for vaccine efficacy started 2 weeks after the third dose (DTP/DTaP) and at the same age (6.5 months) in DT recipients. Reactogenicity of all doses of all three vaccines was documented by standardized parent diary cards. In addition, all subjects were monitored for respiratory illnesses and serious adverse events by biweekly phone calls. Results. From May 1991 to January 1993, a total of 10 271 infants were enrolled: 8532 received either DTP or DTaP and 1739 received DT. Specific efficacy against B pertussisinfections with cough ≥7 days duration was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 76–88) and 72% (95% CI: 62–79) for DTP and DTaP, respectively; results for DTP and DTaP based on ≥21 days of cough with either paroxysms, whoop or posttussive vomiting (PWV) were 93% (95% CI: 89–96) and 83% (95% CI: 76–88), respectively. For DTaP vaccine, efficacy was higher after the fourth dose as compared with its efficacy after the third dose (78% vs 62% for cough ≥7 days and 85% vs 76% for cough ≥21 days with PWV). For DTP vaccine, efficacy was less varied after the third and fourth dose (78% vs 85% for cough ≥7 days and 93% vs 93% for cough ≥21 days with PWV). In contrast with DTP, the DTaP vaccine had some efficacy against B parapertussisinfection (point estimate for cough ≥7 days: 31% [95% CI: −10–56]). All vaccines were generally well-tolerated. However, side reactions were significantly less after DTaP compared with DTP. Conclusions. Like other multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccines, the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine demonstrated good efficacy against mild and typical pertussis due to B pertussisinfections. Interestingly, it also may have some efficacy againstB parapertussis. Based on the results of this trial, the vaccine was licensed in the United States in December 1996 for all 5 doses of the currently recommended immunization schedule in this country.
TL;DR: Pertussis waned during the 5 years after the fifth dose of DTaP, and the odds of acquiring pertussis increased by an average of 42% per year after 2006 to 2011.
Abstract: Background In the United States, children receive five doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine before 7 years of age. The duration of protection after five doses of DTaP is unknown. Methods We assessed the risk of pertussis in children in California relative to the time since the fifth dose of DTaP from 2006 to 2011. This period included a large outbreak in 2010. We conducted a case–control study involving members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were vaccinated with DTaP at 47 to 84 months of age. We compared children with pertussis confirmed by a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay with two sets of controls: those who were PCR-negative for pertussis and closely matched controls from the general population of health-plan members. We used logistic regression to examine the risk of pertussis in relation to the duration of time since the fifth DTaP dose. Children who received whole-cell pertussis vaccine during infancy or who received any pertussis-contain...
TL;DR: Adolescents aged 11-18 years should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphTheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series.
Abstract: During spring 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) products formulated for use in adolescents (and, for one product, use in adults) were licensed in the United States (BOOSTRIX, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium [licensed May 3, 2005, for use in persons aged 10-18 years], and ADACEL, sanofi pasteur, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [licensed June 10, 2005, for use in persons aged 11-64 years]). Prelicensure studies demonstrated safety and efficacy against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis when Tdap was administered as a single booster dose to adolescents. To reduce pertussis morbidity in adolescents and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria protection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that: 1) adolescents aged 11-18 years should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP)/ diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccination series (five doses of pediatric DTP/DTaP before the seventh birthday; if the fourth dose was administered on or after the fourth birthday, the fifth dose is not needed) and have not received Td or Tdap. The preferred age for Tdap vaccination is 11-12 years; 2) adolescents aged 11-18 years who received Td, but not Tdap, are encouraged to receive a single dose of Tdap to provide protection against pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series. An interval of at least 5 years between Td and Tdap is encouraged to reduce the risk for local and systemic reactions after Tdap vaccination. However, an interval less than 5 years between Td and Tdap can be used; and 3) vaccine providers should administer Tdap and tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menactra, sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania) to adolescents aged 11-18 years during the same visit if both vaccines are indicated and available. This statement 1) reviews tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccination policy in the United States, with emphasis on adolescents; 2) describes the clinical features and epidemiology of pertussis among adolescents; 3) summarizes the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data of the two Tdap vaccines licensed for use among adolescents; and 4) presents recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination among adolescents aged 11-18 years.
TL;DR: Recording responses to the T cell-dependent protein antigen tetanus toxoid as well as DTH responses were preserved in rituximab-treated RA patients 24 weeks after treatment, suggesting that polysaccharide and primary immunizations should be administered prior to ritUXimab infusions to maximize responses.
Abstract: Objective To examine immunization responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with rituximab and to investigate the effects of rituximab-induced CD20+ B cell depletion on immune responses to tetanus toxoid (T cell–dependent antigen), pneumococcal polysaccharide (T cell–independent antigen), and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (neoantigen) and on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). Methods In a controlled trial, we enrolled 103 patients with active RA receiving a stable dose of methotrexate (MTX). Tetanus toxoid, pneumococcal polysaccharide, and KLH vaccines as well as a Candida albicans skin test were administered to 1 group of patients receiving rituximab plus MTX (called rituximab-treated patients) for 36 weeks and to 1 group of patients receiving MTX alone for 12 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a ≥4-fold rise in antitetanus IgG levels. Antitetanus, antipneumococcal, and anti-KLH serum IgG levels were measured prior to and 4 weeks following vaccine administration. The DTH response to C albicans was measured 2–3 days following placement. Results Responses to tetanus toxoid vaccine (≥4-fold rise) were similar in both groups (39.1% of rituximab-treated patients and 42.3% of patients treated with MTX alone). The ability to maintain a positive DTH response to the C albicans skin test was comparable in both groups (77.4% of rituximab-treated patients and 70% of patients treated with MTX alone), showing no effect of rituximab treatment. Rituximab-treated patients had decreased responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (57% of patients had a 2-fold rise in titer in response to ≥1 serotype, compared with 82% of patients treated with MTX alone) and to KLH vaccine (47% of patients had detectable anti-KLH IgG, compared with 93% of patients treated with MTX alone). Conclusion Recall responses to the T cell–dependent protein antigen tetanus toxoid as well as DTH responses were preserved in rituximab-treated RA patients 24 weeks after treatment. Responses to neoantigen (KLH) and T cell–independent responses to pneumococcal vaccine were decreased, but many patients were able to mount responses. These data suggest that polysaccharide and primary immunizations should be administered prior to rituximab infusions to maximize responses.
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