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Theaflavin

About: Theaflavin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 777 publications have been published within this topic receiving 28720 citations.


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TL;DR: The effects of tea and green tea catechins on biomarker of oxidative stress, especially oxidative DNA damage, appear very promising in animal models, but data on biomarkers of in vivo oxidative stress in humans are limited.
Abstract: Increasing interest in the health benefits of tea has led to the inclusion of tea extracts in dietary supplements and functional foods. However, epidemiologic evidence regarding the effects of tea consumption on cancer and cardiovascular disease risk is conflicting. While tea contains a number of bioactive chemicals, it is particularly rich in catechins, of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Catechins and their derivatives are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects ascribed to tea. Tea catechins and polyphenols are effective scavengers of reactive oxygen species in vitro and may also function indirectly as antioxidants through their effects on transcription factors and enzyme activities. The fact that catechins are rapidly and extensively metabolized emphasizes the importance of demonstrating their antioxidant activity in vivo. In humans, modest transient increases in plasma antioxidant capacity have been demonstrated following the consumption of tea and green tea catechins. The effects of tea and green tea catechins on biomarkers of oxidative stress, especially oxidative DNA damage, appear very promising in animal models, but data on biomarkers of in vivo oxidative stress in humans are limited. Larger human studies examining the effects of tea and tea catechin intake on biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA are needed.

1,688 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively, suggesting that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.
Abstract: Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red wine. Cocoa contained much higher levels of total phenolics (611 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE) and flavonoids (564 mg of epicatechin equivalents, ECE) per serving than black tea (124 mg of GAE and 34 mg of ECE, respectively), green tea (165 mg of GAE and 47 mg of ECE), and red wine (340 mg of GAE and 163 mg of ECE). Total antioxidant activities were measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and are expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacities (VCEACs). Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively. The relative total antioxidant capacities of the samples in both assays were as follows in decreasing order: cocoa > red wine > green tea > black tea. The total antioxidant capacities from ABTS and DPPH assays were highly correlated with phenolic content (r2 = 0.981 and 0.967, respectively) and flavonoid content (r2 = 0.949 and 0.915). These results suggest that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.

714 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms.
Abstract: Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms.

524 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechin to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.
Abstract: Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG > or = TF2B > or = TF2A > TF1 > or = EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5-40 micromol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.

492 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were used for the rapid and routine analysis of more than 30 phenolics in tea, identified on the basis of their retention time, absorbance spectrum, and MS fragmentation pattern.
Abstract: Tea is a complex mixture containing a range of compounds from simple phenolics to complex thearubigins, many of which have well-recognized antioxidant properties. This paper describes the applicati...

449 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202321
202254
202127
202028
201931
201844