About: Thermal is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8680 publications have been published within this topic receiving 152643 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an active and passive building heating system for solar thermal power systems, where the active system is designed by f--chart and the passive one by Utilizability Methods.
Abstract: FUNDAMENTALS. Solar Radiation. Available Solar Radiation. Selected Heat Transfer Topics. Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Materials. Radiation Transmission Through Glazing: Absorbed Radiation. Flat--Plate Collectors. Concentrating Collectors. Energy Storage. Solar Process Loads. System Thermal Calculations. Solar Process Economics. APPLICATIONS. Solar Water Heating----Active and Passive. Building Heating----Active. Building Heating: Passive and Hybrid Methods. Cooling. Industrial Process Heat. Solar Thermal Power Systems. Solar Ponds: Evaporative Processes. THERMAL DESIGN METHODS. Simulations in Solar Process Design. Design of Active Systems by f--Chart. Design of Active Systems by Utilizability Methods. Design of Passive and Hybrid Heating Systems. Design of Photovoltaic Systems. Appendices. Author Index. Subject Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple spectral cloud ensemble was proposed to provide realistic values of the thermal forcing by convection under various synoptic conditions, such as tropical penetrative convection, tradewind cumuli, and extratropical organized convection.
Abstract: Observational studies indicate that a mass flux approach may provide a realistic framework for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models, but this approach, through the introduction of a spectral cloud ensemble, leads normally to rather complex schemes. In this paper the question is addressed whether much simpler schemes can already provide realistic values of the thermal forcing by convection under various synoptic conditions. This is done through verifying such a scheme first on data from field experiments for periods of tropical penetrative convection (GATE, Marshall Islands), tradewind cumuli (ATEX, BOMEX) and extratropical organized convection (SESAME-79) and then in a NWP model. The scheme considers a population of clouds where the cloud ensemble is described by a one-dimensional bulk model as earlier applied by Yanai et al. in a diagnostic study of tropical convection. Cumulus scale downdrafts are included. Various types of convection are represented, i.e., penetrative convection in c...
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of long-term changes of radiation caused by variations of atmospheric transparency on the thermal regime is studied, and it is found that comparatively small variations in atmospheric transparency could be sufficient for the development of quaternary glaciations.
Abstract: It follows from the analysis of observation data that the secular variation of the mean temperature of the Earth can be explained by the variation of short-wave radiation, arriving at the surface of the Earth. In connection with this, the influence of long-term changes of radiation, caused by variations of atmospheric transparency on the thermal regime is being studied. Taking into account the influence of changes of planetary albedo of the Earth under the development of glaciations on the thermal regime, it is found that comparatively small variations of atmospheric transparency could be sufficient for the development of quaternary glaciations. DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1969.tb00466.x
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and numerical study of forced convection in high porosity (e∼0.89-0.97) metal foams was conducted using air as the fluid medium.
Abstract: We report an experimental and numerical study of forced convection in high porosity (e∼0.89-0.97) metal foams. Experiments have been conducted with aluminum metal foams in a variety of porosities and pore densities using air as the fluid medium. Nusselt number data has been obtained as a function of the pore Reynolds number. In the numerical study, a semi-empirical volume-averaged form of the governing equations is used. The velocity profile is obtained by adapting an exact solution to the momentum equation. The energy transport is modeled without invoking the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. Models for the thermal dispersion conductivity, k d , and the interstitial heat transfer coefficient, h sf , are postulated based on physical arguments. The empirical constants in these models are determined by matching the numerical results with the experimental data obtained in this study as well as those in the open literature. Excellent agreement is achieved in the entire range of the parameters studied, indicating that the proposed treatment is sufficient to model forced convection in metal foams for most practical applications
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