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Thermal decomposition

About: Thermal decomposition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 34363 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 573658 citation(s). The topic is also known as: thermolysis.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent advances in the synthesis of various magnetic nanoparticles using colloidal chemical approaches are reviewed and ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors followed by oxidation or by low-temperature reactions inside reverse micelles.
Abstract: Recent advances in the synthesis of various magnetic nanoparticles using colloidal chemical approaches are reviewed. Typically, these approaches involve either rapid injection of reagents into hot surfactant solution followed by aging at high temperature, or the mixing of reagents at a low temperature and slow heating under controlled conditions. Spherical cobalt nanoparticles with various crystal structures have been synthesized by thermally decomposing dicobalt octacarbonyl or by reducing cobalt salts. Nanoparticles of Fe–Pt and other related iron or cobalt containing alloys have been made by simultaneously reacting their constituent precursors. Many different ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors followed by oxidation or by low-temperature reactions inside reverse micelles. Rod-shaped iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from the oriented growth of spherical nanoparticles, and cobalt nanodisks were synthesized from the thermal decomposition of dicobalt octacarbonyl in the presence of a mixture of two surfactants.

1,358 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Feb 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The future of a particularly promising class of materials for hydrogen storage, namely the catalytically enhanced complex metal hydrides, is discussed and the predictions are supported by thermodynamics considerations, calculations derived from molecular orbital (MO) theory and backed up by simple chemical insights and intuition.
Abstract: This review focuses on key aspects of the thermal decomposition of multinary or mixed hydride materials, with a particular emphasis on the rational control and chemical tuning of the strategically important thermal decomposition temperature of such hydrides, Tdec. An attempt is also made to predict the thermal stability of as-yet unknown, elusive or even unknown hydrides. The future of a particularly promising class of materials for hydrogen storage, namely the catalytically enhanced complex metal hydrides, is discussed. The predictions are supported by thermodynamics considerations, calculations derived from molecular orbital (MO) theory and backed up by simple chemical insights and intuition.

1,356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Solid-state 13 C NMR spectra of graphite oxide (GO) and its derivatives prompt us to propose a new structural model. The spectra of GO treated with KI and the course of the thermal decomposition of GO reveal the presence of epoxide groups, responsible for the oxidating nature of the material. GO is built of aromatic “islands” of variable size which have not been oxidized, and are separated from each other by aliphatic 6-membered rings containing C–OH, epoxide groups and double bonds. The carbon grid is nearly flat; a small degree of warping is caused by the carbons attached to OH groups, which are in a slightly distorted tetrahedral configuration.

1,229 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The thermal stability and flame retardancy of polyurethanes is reviewed. Polyurethanes (PUs) are an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. More than 70% of the literature that deals with PUs evaluates their thermal stability or flame retardancy and attempts to provide a structure–property correlation. The importance of studying thermal degradation, understanding the processes occurring during thermal stress as well as the parameters affecting the thermal stability of PUs are essential in order to effectively design polyurethanes having tailor-made properties suitable for the particular environment where they are to be used. A detailed description of TGA, TGA-MS and TGA-FTIR methods for studying the decomposition mechanism and kinetics is also a part of this review. In general, thermal decomposition of PUs begins with the hard segment (HS) and a number of parameters govern a polyurethane's thermal stability. Detailed description of the parameters such as HS, soft segment (SS) and chain extender (CE) structure and molecular weight, NCO:OH ratio, catalyst nature and crosslink density that affect the nature of PU degradation is given. Descriptions of approaches to improve the thermal stability in PUs such as formation of poly(urethane-isocyanurate), poly(urethane-oxazolidone) and poly(urethane-imide) in addition to other methods such as PUs with an s-triazine ring or increased aromatic ring concentration, azomethane linkages as well as use of hyperbranched polyols as crosslinking agents is given. A part of the review is also concentrated on the improvement of thermal stability via hybrid formation such as the incorporation of appropriate amounts of fillers, e.g., nano-silica; Fe 2 O 3 ; TiO 2 ; silica grafting; nanocomposite formation using organically modified layered silicates; incorporation of Si–O–Si crosslinked structures via sol–gel processes; and the incorporation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) structures into the PU backbone or side chain. Incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into PUs and the use of functionalized fullerenes in PUs are also described as these are the newest tools to obtain good thermal stability and flame retardancy. Part of the review also concentrates on the process that occurs during burning of PUs, flame retardant mechanisms and different additives or reactive type flame retardants used in the PU industry. The use and working function of expandable graphite and melamine as additive type flame retardants are shown. Description of the use of different reactive type organophosphorus compounds, cyclotriphosphazenes, aziridinyl curing agents in aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUDs), organoboron compounds and organosilicon compounds for improving flame retardancy is also given.

1,159 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Aug 2000-Thermochimica Acta
Abstract: We investigated the thermal properties of several imidazolium salts using DSC and TGA/SDTA data. Many of these salts are liquids at sub-ambient temperatures. These ionic liquids form glasses at low temperatures and have minimal vapor pressure up to their thermal decomposition temperature (>400°C). Thermal decomposition is endothermic with the inorganic anions and exothermic with the organic anions investigated. Halide anions drastically reduce the thermal stability of these salts (<300°C). We have observed that aluminium catalyzes the decomposition of the salts containing the inorganic fluoride anions. The imidazolium cations are thermally more stable than the tetraalkyl ammonium cations.

915 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202237
2021841
2020897
2019947
2018973
20171,008

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Massao Ionashiro

114 papers, 1.3K citations

Tonglai Zhang

71 papers, 792 citations

Ray L. Frost

59 papers, 1.9K citations

Thomas B. Brill

53 papers, 2K citations

Gurdip Singh

51 papers, 934 citations