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Thermal shock

About: Thermal shock is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5012 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 58954 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A fracture-mechanical theory is presented for crack propagation in brittle ceramics subjected to thermal shock. The criteria of crack stability are derived for a brittle solid uniformly cooled with triaxially constrained external boundaries. Thermal stress crack instability occurs between two values of critical crack length. For short initial crack length, crack propagation occurs kinetically, with the total area of crack propagation proportional to the factor St2 (1-2v)/EG, where St is tensile strength, v is Poisson's ratio, E is Young's modulus, and G is surface fracture energy. Under these conditions the newly formed crack is subcritical and requires a finite increase in temperature difference before propagation will proceed. For long initial crack length, crack propagation occurs in a quasi-static manner and can be minimized by maximizing the thermal stress crack stability parameter Rst= [G/α2E]1/2, where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion. For heterogeneous brittle solids, such as porous refractories, the concept of an “effective flaw length” is introduced and illustrated on the basis of experimental data in the literature. The relative change in strength of a brittle solid as a function of increasing severity of thermal shock is estimated. Good qualitative agreement with literature data is found.

912 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Polycrystalline bulk samples of Ti 3 Al 1.1 C 1.8 have been fabricated by reactively hot isostatically pressing a mixture of titanium, graphite, and Al 4 C 3 powders at a pressure of 70 MPa and temperature of 1400°C for 16 h. The hot isostatically pressed samples are predominantly single phase (containing ∼4 vol% Al 2 O 3 ), fully dense, and have a grain size of ∼25 μm. This carbide is similar to Ti 3 SiC 2 , with which it is isostructural, and has an unusual combination of properties. It is relatively soft (Vickers hardness of ∼3.5 GPa) and elastically stiff (Young's modulus of 297 GPa and shear modulus of 124 GPa); yet, it is lightweight (density of 4.2 g/cm 3 ) and easily machinable. The room-temperature electrical resistivity is 0.35 ± 0.03 μΩ.m and decreases linearly as the temperature decreases. The temperature coefficient of resistivity is 0.0031 K -1 . The coefficient of thermal expansion, in the temperature range of 25°-1200°C, is 9.0 (± 0.2) x 10 -6 K -1 . The room-temperature compressive and flexural strengths are 560 ± 20 and 375 ± 15 MPa, respectively. In contrast to flexure, where the failure is brittle, the failure in compression is noncatastrophic and is accompanied by some plasticity. The origin of that plasticity is believed to be the formation of a shear band that is oriented at an angle of ∼45° to the applied load. Ti 3 Al 1.1 C 1.8 also is a highly damage-tolerant material; a 10-kg-load Vickers indentation made in a bar 1.5 mm thick reduces the postindentation flexural strength by ∼7%. This material also is quite resistant to thermal shock. At temperatures of >1000°C, the deformation in compression is accompanied by significant plasticity and very respectable ultimate compressive stresses (200 MPa at 1200°C).

531 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: There is a strong deviation from the usual τ1/2 scaling of laser damage fluence for pulses below 10 ps in dielectric materials. This behavior is a result of the transition from a thermally dominated damage mechanism to one dominated by plasma formation on a time scale too short for significant energy transfer to the lattice. This new mechanism of damage (material removal) is accompanied by a qualitative change in the morphology of the interaction site and essentially no collateral damage. High precision machining of all dielectrics (oxides, fluorides, explosives, teeth, glasses, ceramics, SiC, etc.) with no thermal shock or distortion of the remaining material by this mechanism is described.

475 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1998-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: The heat-shock response is a conserved reaction of cells and organisms to elevated temperatures (heat shock or heat stress).
Abstract: The heat-shock response is a conserved reaction of cells and organisms to elevated temperatures (heat shock or heat stress). Whereas severe heat stress leads to cellular damage and cell death, sublethal doses of heat stress induce a cellular response, the heat-shock response, which (a) protects

391 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this article, the second part of a two-part study, we report on the mechanical behavior of Ti3SiC2. In particular, we have evaluated the mechanical response of fine-grained (3–5 μm) Ti3SiC2 in simple compression and flexure tests, and we have compared the results with those of coarse-grained (100–200 μm) Ti3SiC2. These tests have been conducted in the 25°–1300°C temperature range. At ambient temperature, the fine- and coarse-grained microstructures exhibit excellent damage-tolerant properties. In both cases, failure is brittle up to ∼1200°C. At 1300°C, both microstructures exhibit plastic deformation (>20%) in flexure and compression. The fine-grained material exhibits higher strength compared with the coarse-grained material at all temperatures. Although the coarse-grained material is not susceptible to thermal shock (up to 1400°C), the fine-grained material thermally shocks gradually between 750° and 1000°C. The results presented herein provide evidence for two important aspects of the mechanical behavior of Ti3SiC2: (i) inelastic deformation entails basal slip and damage formation in the form of voids, grain-boundary cracks, kinking, and delamination of individual grains, and (ii) the initiation of damage does not result in catastrophic failure, because Ti3SiC2 can confine the spatial extent of the damage.

343 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202211
2021216
2020187
2019224
2018219
2017188

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Baolin Wang

35 papers, 458 citations

Jianfeng Wu

30 papers, 283 citations

Gerald Pintsuk

29 papers, 716 citations

Xinghong Zhang

25 papers, 574 citations

Jochen Linke

25 papers, 541 citations