About: Thermal spraying is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12858 publications have been published within this topic receiving 180283 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1949
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an X-ray analysis of metallic materials and their properties, such as elastic properties, damping capacity and shape memory alloys, as well as their properties of metal and alloys.
Abstract: General physical and chemical constants X-ray analysis of metallic material Crystallography Crystal chemistry Metallurgically important minerals Thermochemical data Physical properties of molton salts Metallography Equilibrium diagrams Gas-metal systems Diffusion in metals General physical properties Elastic properties, damping capacity and shape memory alloys Temperature measurement and thermoelectric properties Radiating properties of metals Electron emission Electrical properties Magnetic materials and their properties Mechanical testing Mechanical properties of metals and alloys Sintered materials Lubricants Friction and wear Casting alloys and foundry data Engineering ceramics and refractory materials Fuels Heat treatment Metal cutting and forming Corrosion Electroplating and metal finishing Welding Soldering and brazing Vapour deposited coatings and thermal spraying Superplasticity Metal-matrix composites Non-conventional and emerging metallic minerals modelling and simulation supporting technologies for the processing of metals and alloys.
14 Feb 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a detailed overview of the main steps in the process of spraying particles and their properties, including properties such as temperature, surface properties, and surface properties.
Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols. 1 Materials Used for Spraying. 1.1 Methods of Powders Production. 1.1.1 Atomization. 1.1.2 Sintering or Fusion. 1.1.3 Spray Drying (Agglomeration). 1.1.4 Cladding. 1.1.5 Mechanical Alloying (Mechanofusion). 1.1.6 Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS). 1.1.7 Other Methods. 1.2 Methods of Powders Characterization. 1.2.1 Grain Size. 1.2.2 Chemical and Phase Composition. 1.2.3 Internal and External Morphology. 1.2.4 High-temperature Behaviour. 1.2.5 Apparent Density and Flowability. 1.3 Feeding, Transport and Injection of Powders. 1.3.1 Powder Feeders. 1.3.2 Transport of Powders. 1.3.3 Injection of Powders. References. 2 Pre-Spray Treatment. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Surface Cleaning. 2.3 Substrate Shaping. 2.4 Surface Activation. 2.5 Masking. References. 3 Thermal Spraying Techniques. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Flame Spraying (FS). 3.2.1 History. 3.2.2 Principles. 3.2.3 Process Parameters. 3.2.4 Coating Properties. 3.3 Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS). 3.3.1 History. 3.3.2 Principles. 3.3.3 Process Parameters. 3.3.4 Coating Properties. 3.4 Arc Spraying (AS). 3.4.1 Principles. 3.4.2 Process Parameters. 3.4.3 Coating Properties. 3.5 Detonation-Gun Spraying (D-GUN). 3.5.1 History. 3.5.2 Principles. 3.5.3 Process Parameters. 3.5.4 Coating Properties. 3.6 High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spraying. 3.6.1 History. 3.6.2 Principles. 3.6.3 Process Parameters. 3.6.4 Coating Properties. 3.7 Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS). 3.7.1 History. 3.7.2 Principles. 3.7.3 Process Parameters. 3.7.4 Coating Properties. 3.8 Controlled-Atmosphere Plasma Spraying (CAPS). 3.8.1 History. 3.8.2 Principles. 3.8.3 Process Parameters. 3.8.4 Coating Properties. 3.9 Cold-Gas Spraying Method (CGSM). 3.9.1 History. 3.9.2 Principles. 3.9.3 Process Parameters. 3.9.4 Coating Properties. 3.10 New Developments in Thermal Spray Techniques. References. 4 Post-Spray Treatment. 4.1 Heat Treatment. 4.1.1 Electromagnetic Treatment. 4.1.2 Furnace Treatment. 4.1.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). 4.1.4 Combustion Flame Re-melting. 4.2 Impregnation. 4.2.1 Inorganic Sealants. 4.2.2 Organic Sealants. 4.3 Finishing. 4.3.1 Grinding. 4.3.2 Polishing and Lapping. References. 5 Physics and Chemistry of Thermal Spraying. 5.1 Jets and Flames. 5.1.1 Properties of Jets and Flames. 5.2 Momentum Transfer between Jets or Flames and Sprayed Particles. 5.2.1 Theoretical Description. 5.2.2 Experimental Determination of Sprayed Particles' Velocities. 5.2.3 Examples of Experimental Determination of Particles Velocities. 5.3 Heat Transfer between Jets or Flames and Sprayed Particles. 5.3.1 Theoretical Description. 5.3.2 Methods of Particles' Temperature Measurements. 5.4 Chemical Modification at Flight of Sprayed Particles. References. 6 Coating Build-Up. 6.1 Impact of Particles. 6.1.1 Particle Deformation. 6.1.2 Particle Temperature at Impact. 6.1.3 Nucleation, Solidification and Crystal Growth. 6.1.4 Mechanisms of Adhesion. 6.2 Coating Growth. 6.2.1 Mechanism of Coating Growth. 6.2.2 Temperature of Coatings at Spraying. 6.2.3 Generation of Thermal Stresses at Spraying. 6.2.4 Coatings Surfaces. 6.3 Microstructure of the Coatings. 6.3.1 Crystal Phase Composition. 6.3.2 Coatings' Inhomogeneity. 6.3.3 Final Microstructure of Sprayed Coatings. 6.4 Thermally Sprayed Composites. 6.4.1 Classification of Sprayed Composites. 6.4.2 Composite Coating Manufacturing. References. 7 Methods of Coatings' Characterization. 7.1 Methods of Microstructure Characterization. 7.1.1 Methods of Chemical Analysis. 7.1.2 Crystallographic Analyses. 7.1.3 Microstructure Analyses. 7.1.4 Other Applied Methods. 7.2 Mechanical Properties of Coatings. 7.2.1 Adhesion Determination. 7.2.2 Hardness and Microhardness. 7.2.3 Elastic Moduli, Strength and Ductility. 7.2.4 Properties Related to Mechanics of Coating Fracture. 7.2.5 Friction and Wear. 7.2.6 Residual Stresses. 7.3 Physical Properties of Coatings. 7.3.1 Thickness, Porosity and Density. 7.3.2 Thermophysical Properties. 7.3.3 Thermal Shock Resistance. 7.4 Electrical Properties of Coatings. 7.4.1 Electrical Conductivity. 7.4.2 Properties of Dielectrics. 7.4.3 Electron Emission from Surfaces. 7.5 Magnetic Properties of Coatings. 7.6 Chemical Properties of Coatings. 7.6.1 Aqueous Corrosion. 7.6.2 Hot-gas Corrosion. 7.7 Characterization of Coatings' Quality. 7.7.1 Acoustical Methods. 7.7.2 Thermal Methods. References. 8 Properties of Coatings. 8.1 Design of Experiments. 8.2 Mechanical Properties. 8.2.1 Hardness and Microhardness. 8.2.2 Tensile Adhesion Strength. 8.2.3 Elastic Moduli, Strengths and Fracture Toughness. 8.2.4 Friction and Wear. 8.3 Thermophysical Properties. 8.3.1 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity. 8.3.2 Specific Heat. 8.3.3 Thermal Expansion. 8.3.4 Emissivity. 8.3.5 Thermal Shock Resistance. 8.4 Electric Properties. 8.4.1 Properties of Conductors. 8.4.2 Properties of Resistors. 8.4.3 Properties of Dielectrics. 8.4.4 Electric Field Emitters. 8.4.5 Properties of Superconductors. 8.5 Magnetic Properties. 8.5.1 Soft Magnets. 8.5.2 Hard Magnets. 8.6 Optical Properties. 8.6.1 Decorative Coatings. 8.6.2 Optically Functional Coatings. 8.7 Corrosion Resistance. 8.7.1 Aqueous Corrosion. 8.7.2 Hot-medium Corrosion. References. 9 Applications of Coatings. 9.1 Aeronautical and Space Industries. 9.1.1 Aero-engines. 9.1.2 Landing-gear Components. 9.1.3 Rocket Thrust-chamber Liners. 9.2 Agroalimentary Industry. 9.3 Automobile Industry. 9.4 Ceramics Industry. 9.4.1 Free-standing Samples. 9.4.2 Brick-Clay Extruders. 9.4.3 Crucibles to Melt Oxide Ceramics. 9.4.4 Ceramic Membranes. 9.5 Chemical Industry. 9.5.1 Photocatalytic Surfaces. 9.5.2 Tools in Petrol Search Installations. 9.5.3 Vessels in Chemical Refineries. 9.5.4 Gas-well Tubing. 9.5.5 Polymeric Coatings on Pipeline Components. 9.5.6 Ozonizer Tubes. 9.6 Civil Engineering. 9.7 Decorative Coatings. 9.8 Electronics Industry. 9.8.1 Heaters. 9.8.2 Sources for Sputtering. 9.8.3 Substrates for Hybrid Microelectronics. 9.8.4 Capacitor Electrodes. 9.8.5 Conductor Paths for Hybrid Electronics. 9.8.6 Microwave Integrated Circuits. 9.9 Energy Generation and Transport. 9.9.1 Solid-oxide Fuel Cell (SOFCs). 9.9.2 Thermopile Devices for Thermoelectric Generators. 9.9.3 Boilers in Power-generation Plants. 9.9.4 Stationary Gas Turbines. 9.9.5 Hydropower Stations. 9.9.6 MHD Generators. 9.10 Iron and Steel Industries. 9.10.1 Continuous Annealing Line (CAL). 9.10.2 Continuous Galvanizing Section. 9.10.3 Stave Cooling Pipes. 9.11 Machine Building Industry. 9.12 Medicine. 9.13 Mining Industry. 9.14 Non-ferrous Metal Industry. 9.14.1 Hot-extrusion Dies. 9.14.2 Protective Coatings against Liquid Copper. 9.14.3 Protective Coatings against Liquid Zirconium. 9.15 Nuclear Industry. 9.15.1 Components of Tokamak Device. 9.15.2 Magnetic-fusion Energy Device. 9.16 Paper Industry. 9.16.1 Dryers. 9.16.2 Gloss Calender Rolls. 9.16.3 Tubing in Boilers. 9.17 Printing and Packaging Industries. 9.17.1 Corona Rolls. 9.17.2 Anilox Rolls. 9.18 Shipbuiding and Naval Industries. 9.18.1 Marine Gas-turbine Engines. 9.18.2 Steam Valve Stems. 9.18.3 Non-skid Helicopter Flight Deck. References. Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, a hypothesis for the bonding of particles in cold gas spraying, by making use of numerical modelling of the deformation during particle impact, is presented, with the results of modelling assessed with respect to the experimentally evaluated critical velocities, impact morphologies and strengths of coatings.
Abstract: Cold gas spraying is a relatively new coating process by which coatings can be produced without significant heating of the sprayed powder. In contrast to the well-known thermal spray processes such as flame, arc, and plasma spraying, in cold spraying there is no melting of particles prior to impact on the substrate. The adhesion of particles in this process is due solely to their kinetic energy upon impact. Experimental investigations show that successful bonding is achieved only above a critical particle velocity, whose value depends on the temperature and the thermomechanical properties of the sprayed material. This paper supplies a hypothesis for the bonding of particles in cold gas spraying, by making use of numerical modelling of the deformation during particle impact. The results of modelling are assessed with respect to the experimentally evaluated critical velocities, impact morphologies and strengths of coatings. The analysis demonstrates that bonding can be attributed to adiabatic shear instabilities which occur at the particle surface at or beyond the critical velocity. On the basis of this criterion, critical velocities can be predicted and used to optimise process parameters for various materials.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of oxidant and precursor fuel composition on the size of FSP-made silica primary particles (8 − 40 nm ) was studied using as precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) dissolved in ethanol, iso-octane or methanol.
Abstract: The flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process was systematically investigated using an external-mixing gas-assisted atomizer supported by six premixed methane–oxygen flameletes. The effect of oxidant and precursor fuel composition on the size of FSP-made silica primary particles (8– 40 nm ) was studied using as precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) dissolved in ethanol, iso-octane or methanol. As oxidant air and pure oxygen were used, that served also as droplet dispersion gases. Droplet size distributions were measured by laser diffraction, while droplet lifetimes were calculated using a spray combustion model to explain for the first time the difference in flame structure and especially product powder characteristics when air or oxygen was used as oxidant/dispersion gas. The spray flame temperature was measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) emission/transmission (E/T) spectroscopy. The liquid solvent (fuel), especially its enthalpy content, was an important parameter in FSP as it affected the total net heating value of the spray flame. It is shown for the first time also how the specific surface area of the FSP-made particles can be systematically controlled through the oxidant flow rate and precursor/fuel composition.
TL;DR: In this paper, multi-principal element alloy coatings of Al-Si alloys were prepared by a plasma spray method and they not only exhibited a good oxidation resistance up to 1000 °C, but also possessed an excellent abrasive wear resistance approximately two times higher than those of SUJ2 and SKD61.
Abstract: Multi-principal-element alloy coatings of Al-Si alloys were prepared by a plasma spray method They not only exhibited a good oxidation resistance up to 1000 °C, but also possessed an excellent abrasive wear resistance approximately two times higher than those of SUJ2 and SKD61 Moreover, they displayed a high temperature precipitation hardening phenomenon up to 1100 °C which is novel and seldom found in conventional alloys
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