About: Thermoelectric effect is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 37489 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 733341 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Seebeck effect.
01 Feb 2008-Nature Materials
TL;DR: A new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, and the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity are reviewed.
Abstract: Thermoelectric materials, which can generate electricity from waste heat or be used as solid-state Peltier coolers, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution. Such a development is contingent on identifying materials with higher thermoelectric efficiency than available at present, which is a challenge owing to the conflicting combination of material traits that are required. Nevertheless, because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, a new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. We review recent advances in the field, highlighting the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity.
11 Oct 2001-Nature
TL;DR: Th thin-film thermoelectric materials are reported that demonstrate a significant enhancement in ZT at 300 K, compared to state-of-the-art bulk Bi2Te3 alloys, and the combination of performance, power density and speed achieved in these materials will lead to diverse technological applications.
Abstract: Thermoelectric materials are of interest for applications as heat pumps and power generators. The performance of thermoelectric devices is quantified by a figure of merit, ZT, where Z is a measure of a material's thermoelectric properties and T is the absolute temperature. A material with a figure of merit of around unity was first reported over four decades ago, but since then-despite investigation of various approaches-there has been only modest progress in finding materials with enhanced ZT values at room temperature. Here we report thin-film thermoelectric materials that demonstrate a significant enhancement in ZT at 300 K, compared to state-of-the-art bulk Bi2Te3 alloys. This amounts to a maximum observed factor of approximately 2.4 for our p-type Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattice devices. The enhancement is achieved by controlling the transport of phonons and electrons in the superlattices. Preliminary devices exhibit significant cooling (32 K at around room temperature) and the potential to pump a heat flux of up to 700 W cm-2; the localized cooling and heating occurs some 23,000 times faster than in bulk devices. We anticipate that the combination of performance, power density and speed achieved in these materials will lead to diverse technological applications: for example, in thermochemistry-on-a-chip, DNA microarrays, fibre-optic switches and microelectrothermal systems.
02 May 2008-Science
TL;DR: Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation.
Abstract: The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in bismuth antimony telluride (BiSbTe) bulk alloys has remained around 1 for more than 50 years. We show that a peak ZT of 1.4 at 100°C can be achieved in a p-type nanocrystalline BiSbTe bulk alloy. These nanocrystalline bulk materials were made by hot pressing nanopowders that were ball-milled from crystalline ingots under inert conditions. Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects. More importantly, ZT is about 1.2 at room temperature and 0.8 at 250°C, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation. Cooling devices that use these materials have produced high-temperature differences of 86°, 106°, and 119°C with hot-side temperatures set at 50°, 100°, and 150°C, respectively. This discovery sets the stage for use of a new nanocomposite approach in developing high-performance low-cost bulk thermoelectric materials.
14 Jul 1995-
Abstract: Introduction, D.M. Rowe General Principles and Theoretical Considerations Thermoelectric Phenomena, D.D. Pollock Coversion Efficiency and Figure-of-Merit, H.J. Goldsmid Thermoelectric Transport Theory, C.M. Bhandari Optimization of Carrier Concentration, C.M. Bhandari and D.M. Rowe Minimizing the Thermal Conductivity, C.M. Bhandari Selective Carrier Scattering in Thermoelectric Materials, Y.I. Ravich Thermomagnetic Phenomena, H.J. Goldsmid Material Preparation Preparation of Thermoelectric Materials from Melts, A. Borshchevsky Powder Metallurgy Techniques, A.N. Scoville PIES Method of Preparing Bismuth Alloys, T. Ohta and T. Kajikawa Preparation of Thermoelectric Materials by Mechanical Alloying, B.A. Cook, J.L. Harringa, and S.H. Han Preparation of Thermoelectric Films, K. Matsubara, T. Koyanagi, K. Nagao, and K. Kishimoto Measurement of Thermoelectric Properties Calculation of Peltier Device Performance, R.J. Buist Measurements of Electrical Properties, I.A. Nishida Measurement of Thermal Properties, R. Taylor Z-Meters, H.H. Woodbury, L.M. Levinson, and S. Lewandowski Methodology for Testing Thermoelectric Materials and Devices, R.J. Buist Thermoelectric Materials Bismuth Telluride, Antimony Telluride, and Their Solid Solutions, H. Scherrer and S. Scherrer Valence Band Structure and the Thermoelectric Figure-of-Merit of (Bi1-xSbx)Te3 Crystals, M. Stordeur Lead Telluride and Its Alloys, V. Fano Properties of the General Tags System, E.A. Skrabek and D.S. Trimmer Thermoelectric Properties of Silicides, C.B. Vining Polycrystalline Iron Disilicide as a Thermoelectric Generator Material, U. Birkholz, E. Gross, and U. Stohrer Thermoelectric Properties of Anisotropic MnSi1.75 , V.K. Zaitsev Low Carrier Mobility Materials for Thermoelectric Applications, V.K. Zaitsev, S.A. Ktitorov, and M.I. Federov Semimetals as Materials for Thermoelectric Generators, M.I. Fedorov and V.K. Zaitsev Silicon Germanium, C.B. Vining Rare Earth Compounds, B.J. Beaudry and K.A. Gschneidner, Jr. Thermoelectric Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, M. Cassart and J.-P. Issi Boron Carbides, T.L. Aselage and D. Emin Thermoelectric Properties of Metallic Materials, A.T. Burkov and M.V. Vedernikov Neutron Irradiation Damage in SiGe Alloys, J.W. Vandersande New Materials and Performance Limits for Thermoelectric Cooling, G.A. Slack Thermoelectric Generation Miniature Semiconductor Thermoelectric Devices, D.M. Rowe Commercially Available Generators, A.G. McNaughton Modular RTG Technology, R.F. Hartman Peltier Devices as Generators, G. Min and D.M. Rowe Calculations of Generator Performance, M.H. Cobble Generator Applications Terrestrial Applications of Thermoelectric Generators, W.C. Hall Space Applications, G.L. Bennett SP-100 Space Subsystems, J.F. Mondt Safety Aspects of Thermoelectrics in Space, G.L. Bennett Low-Temperature Heat Conversion, K. Matsuura and D.M. Rowe Thermoelectric Refrigeration Introduction, H.J. Goldsmid Module Design and Fabrication, R. Marlow and E. Burke Cooling Thermoelements with Superconducting Leg, M.V. Vedernikov and V.L. Kuznetsov Applications of Thermoelectric Cooling Introduction, H.J. Goldsmid Commercial Peltier Modules, K.-I. Uemura Thermoelectrically Cooled Radiation Detectors, L.I. Anatychuk Reliability of Peltier Coolers in Fiber-Optic Laser Packages, R.M. Redstall and R. Studd Laboratory Equipment, K.-I. Uemura Large-Scale Cooling: Integrated Thermoelectric Element Technology, J.G. Stockholm Medium-Scale Cooling: Thermoelectric Module Technology, J.G. Stockholm Modeling of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems, J.G. Stockholm
12 Sep 2008-Science
TL;DR: Thermoelectric materials are solid-state energy converters whose combination of thermal, electrical, and semiconductor properties allows them to be used to convert waste heat into electricity or electrical power directly into cooling and heating.
Abstract: Thermoelectric materials are solid-state energy converters whose combination of thermal, electrical, and semiconducting properties allows them to be used to convert waste heat into electricity or electrical power directly into cooling and heating. These materials can be competitive with fluid-based systems, such as two-phase air-conditioning compressors or heat pumps, or used in smaller-scale applications such as in automobile seats, night-vision systems, and electrical-enclosure cooling. More widespread use of thermoelectrics requires not only improving the intrinsic energy-conversion efficiency of the materials but also implementing recent advancements in system architecture. These principles are illustrated with several proven and potential applications of thermoelectrics.