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Three-dimensional face recognition

About: Three-dimensional face recognition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7270 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 256709 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A near-real-time computer system that can locate and track a subject's head, and then recognize the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals, and that is easy to implement using a neural network architecture.
Abstract: We have developed a near-real-time computer system that can locate and track a subject's head, and then recognize the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals. The computational approach taken in this system is motivated by both physiology and information theory, as well as by the practical requirements of near-real-time performance and accuracy. Our approach treats the face recognition problem as an intrinsically two-dimensional (2-D) recognition problem rather than requiring recovery of three-dimensional geometry, taking advantage of the fact that faces are normally upright and thus may be described by a small set of 2-D characteristic views. The system functions by projecting face images onto a feature space that spans the significant variations among known face images. The significant features are known as "eigenfaces," because they are the eigenvectors (principal components) of the set of faces; they do not necessarily correspond to features such as eyes, ears, and noses. The projection operation characterizes an individual face by a weighted sum of the eigenface features, and so to recognize a particular face it is necessary only to compare these weights to those of known individuals. Some particular advantages of our approach are that it provides for the ability to learn and later recognize new faces in an unsupervised manner, and that it is easy to implement using a neural network architecture.

14,128 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression is developed, based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variations in lighting and facial expressions.
Abstract: We develop a face recognition algorithm which is insensitive to large variation in lighting direction and facial expression. Taking a pattern classification approach, we consider each pixel in an image as a coordinate in a high-dimensional space. We take advantage of the observation that the images of a particular face, under varying illumination but fixed pose, lie in a 3D linear subspace of the high dimensional image space-if the face is a Lambertian surface without shadowing. However, since faces are not truly Lambertian surfaces and do indeed produce self-shadowing, images will deviate from this linear subspace. Rather than explicitly modeling this deviation, we linearly project the image into a subspace in a manner which discounts those regions of the face with large deviation. Our projection method is based on Fisher's linear discriminant and produces well separated classes in a low-dimensional subspace, even under severe variation in lighting and facial expressions. The eigenface technique, another method based on linearly projecting the image space to a low dimensional subspace, has similar computational requirements. Yet, extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed "Fisherface" method has error rates that are lower than those of the eigenface technique for tests on the Harvard and Yale face databases.

11,674 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: A system that directly learns a mapping from face images to a compact Euclidean space where distances directly correspond to a measure offace similarity, and achieves state-of-the-art face recognition performance using only 128-bytes perface.
Abstract: Despite significant recent advances in the field of face recognition [10, 14, 15, 17], implementing face verification and recognition efficiently at scale presents serious challenges to current approaches. In this paper we present a system, called FaceNet, that directly learns a mapping from face images to a compact Euclidean space where distances directly correspond to a measure of face similarity. Once this space has been produced, tasks such as face recognition, verification and clustering can be easily implemented using standard techniques with FaceNet embeddings as feature vectors.

8,289 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.

6,175 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
03 Jun 1991
TL;DR: An approach to the detection and identification of human faces is presented, and a working, near-real-time face recognition system which tracks a subject's head and then recognizes the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals is described.
Abstract: An approach to the detection and identification of human faces is presented, and a working, near-real-time face recognition system which tracks a subject's head and then recognizes the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals is described. This approach treats face recognition as a two-dimensional recognition problem, taking advantage of the fact that faces are normally upright and thus may be described by a small set of 2-D characteristic views. Face images are projected onto a feature space ('face space') that best encodes the variation among known face images. The face space is defined by the 'eigenfaces', which are the eigenvectors of the set of faces; they do not necessarily correspond to isolated features such as eyes, ears, and noses. The framework provides the ability to learn to recognize new faces in an unsupervised manner. >

5,419 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20212
202013
201918
201842
2017357
2016599