Three-dimensional integrated circuit
About: Three-dimensional integrated circuit is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1600 publications have been published within this topic receiving 26842 citations. The topic is also known as: 3D IC & Three dimensional integrated circuit.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a high-level discussion of the pros and cons of 3D technologies, with an analysis relating the number of transistors on a chip to the vertical interconnect density using estimates based on Rent's rule.
Abstract: This article provides a practical introduction to the design trade-offs of the currently available 3D IC technology options. It begins with an overview of techniques, such as wire bonding, microbumps, through vias, and contactless interconnection, comparing them in terms of vertical density and practical limits to their use. We then present a high-level discussion of the pros and cons of 3D technologies, with an analysis relating the number of transistors on a chip to the vertical interconnect density using estimates based on Rent's rule. Next, we provide a more detailed design example of inductively coupled interconnects, with measured results of a system fabricated in a 0.35-/spl mu/m technology and an analysis of misalignment and crosstalk tolerances. Lastly, we present a case study of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) placed and routed in a 0.18-/spl mu/m through-via silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, comparing the 3D design to a traditional 2D approach in terms of wire length and critical-path delay.
TL;DR: This paper presents a projection of the reliability challenges in 3D IC packaging technology on the basis of what the authors have known from flip chip technology.
Abstract: At the moment, a major paradigm change, from 2D IC to 3D IC, is occurring in microelectronic industry. Joule heating is serious in 3D IC, and vertical interconnect is the critical element to be developed. Also reliability concerns will be extremely important. For example, in order to remove heat, a temperature gradient must exist in the packaging. If we assume just a difference of 1 °C across a micro-bump of 10 μm in diameter, the temperature gradient is 1000 °C/cm which cannot be ignored due to thermomigration. Equally challenging reliability issues are electromigration and stress-migration. Since the 3D IC structure is new, the details of reliability problems are mostly unknown. This paper presents a projection of the reliability challenges in 3D IC packaging technology on the basis of what we have known from flip chip technology.
18 Sep 1989
TL;DR: In this article, a three-dimensional high density package for integrated circuits for which integrated circuits are placed onto substrate layers and then stacked together is described, and techniques for interconnecting the layers to one another and for connecting the layer to external circuitry are also disclosed.
Abstract: This invention discloses a three-dimensional, high density package for integrated circuits for which integrated circuits are placed onto substrate layers and then stacked together. Techniques for interconnecting the layers to one another and for connecting the layers to external circuitry are also disclosed. Techniques for cooling the stack with heat sinks or fluid flow are also disclosed.
••07 Nov 2004
TL;DR: A thermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithm with CBA representation that can reduce the wirelength by 29% and reduce the maximum on-chip temperature by 56% is proposed.
Abstract: As the technology progresses, interconnect delays have become bottlenecks of chip performance. 3D integrated circuits are proposed as one way to address this problem. However, thermal problem is a critical challenge for 3D IC circuit design. We propose a thermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithm. Our contributions include: (1) a new 3D floorplan representation, CBA and new interlayer local operations to more efficiently exploit the solution space; (2) an efficient thermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithm with an integrated compact resistive network thermal model (CBA-T); (3) two fast thermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithms using two different thermal models with different runtime and quality (CBA-T-Fast and CBA-T-Hybrid). Our experiments show that the proposed 3D floorplan algorithm with CBA representation can reduce the wirelength by 29% compared with a recent published result from (Hsiu et al., 2004). In addition, compared to a nonthermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithm, the thermal-driven 3D floorplanning algorithm can reduce the maximum on-chip temperature by 56%.
••01 May 2006
TL;DR: A router architecture and a topology design that makes use of a network architecture embedded into the L2 cache memory are proposed that demonstrate that a 3D L2 memory architecture generates much better results than the conventional two-dimensional designs under different number of layers and vertical connections.
Abstract: Long interconnects are becoming an increasingly important problem from both power and performance perspectives. This motivates designers to adopt on-chip network-based communication infrastructures and three-dimensional (3D) designs where multiple device layers are stacked together. Considering the current trends towards increasing use of chip multiprocessing, it is timely to consider 3D chip multiprocessor design and memory networking issues, especially in the context of data management in large L2 caches. The overall goal of this paper is to study the challenges for L2 design and management in 3D chip multiprocessors. Our first contribution is to propose a router architecture and a topology design that makes use of a network architecture embedded into the L2 cache memory. Our second contribution is to demonstrate, through extensive experiments, that a 3D L2 memory architecture generates much better results than the conventional two-dimensional (2D) designs under different number of layers and vertical (inter-wafer) connections. In particular, our experiments show that a 3D architecture with no dynamic data migration generates better performance than a 2D architecture that employs data migration. This also helps reduce power consumption in L2 due to a reduced number of data movements.