Topic

# Throughput

About: Throughput is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 47980 publications have been published within this topic receiving 814395 citations. The topic is also known as: system throughput & aggregate throughput.

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TL;DR: When n identical randomly located nodes, each capable of transmitting at W bits per second and using a fixed range, form a wireless network, the throughput /spl lambda/(n) obtainable by each node for a randomly chosen destination is /spl Theta/(W//spl radic/(nlogn)) bits persecond under a noninterference protocol.

Abstract: When n identical randomly located nodes, each capable of transmitting at W bits per second and using a fixed range, form a wireless network, the throughput /spl lambda/(n) obtainable by each node for a randomly chosen destination is /spl Theta/(W//spl radic/(nlogn)) bits per second under a noninterference protocol. If the nodes are optimally placed in a disk of unit area, traffic patterns are optimally assigned, and each transmission's range is optimally chosen, the bit-distance product that can be transported by the network per second is /spl Theta/(W/spl radic/An) bit-meters per second. Thus even under optimal circumstances, the throughput is only /spl Theta/(W//spl radic/n) bits per second for each node for a destination nonvanishingly far away. Similar results also hold under an alternate physical model where a required signal-to-interference ratio is specified for successful receptions. Fundamentally, it is the need for every node all over the domain to share whatever portion of the channel it is utilizing with nodes in its local neighborhood that is the reason for the constriction in capacity. Splitting the channel into several subchannels does not change any of the results. Some implications may be worth considering by designers. Since the throughput furnished to each user diminishes to zero as the number of users is increased, perhaps networks connecting smaller numbers of users, or featuring connections mostly with nearby neighbors, may be more likely to be find acceptance.

9,008 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple but nevertheless extremely accurate, analytical model to compute the 802.11 DCF throughput, in the assumption of finite number of terminals and ideal channel conditions, is presented.

Abstract: The IEEE has standardized the 802.11 protocol for wireless local area networks. The primary medium access control (MAC) technique of 802.11 is called the distributed coordination function (DCF). The DCF is a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme with binary slotted exponential backoff. This paper provides a simple, but nevertheless extremely accurate, analytical model to compute the 802.11 DCF throughput, in the assumption of finite number of terminals and ideal channel conditions. The proposed analysis applies to both the packet transmission schemes employed by DCF, namely, the basic access and the RTS/CTS access mechanisms. In addition, it also applies to a combination of the two schemes, in which packets longer than a given threshold are transmitted according to the RTS/CTS mechanism. By means of the proposed model, we provide an extensive throughput performance evaluation of both access mechanisms of the 802.11 protocol.

8,072 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments.

Abstract: Worst-case bounds on delay and backlog are derived for leaky bucket constrained sessions in arbitrary topology networks of generalized processor sharing (GPS) servers. The inherent flexibility of the service discipline is exploited to analyze broad classes of networks. When only a subset of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained, we give succinct per-session bounds that are independent of the behavior of the other sessions and also of the network topology. However, these bounds are only shown to hold for each session that is guaranteed a backlog clearing rate that exceeds the token arrival rate of its leaky bucket. A much broader class of networks, called consistent relative session treatment (CRST) networks is analyzed for the case in which all of the sessions are leaky bucket constrained. First, an algorithm is presented that characterizes the internal traffic in terms of average rate and burstiness, and it is shown that all CRST networks are stable. Next, a method is presented that yields bounds on session delay and backlog given this internal traffic characterization. The links of a route are treated collectively, yielding tighter bounds than those that result from adding the worst-case delays (backlogs) at each of the links in the route. The bounds on delay and backlog for each session are efficiently computed from a universal service curve, and it is shown that these bounds are achieved by "staggered" greedy regimes when an independent sessions relaxation holds. Propagation delay is also incorporated into the model. Finally, the analysis of arbitrary topology GPS networks is related to Packet GPS networks (PGPS). The PGPS scheme was first proposed by Demers, Shenker and Keshav (1991) under the name of weighted fair queueing. For small packet sizes, the behavior of the two schemes is seen to be virtually identical, and the effectiveness of PGPS in guaranteeing worst-case session delay is demonstrated under certain assignments. >

3,967 citations

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14 Sep 2003TL;DR: Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hop-count, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance.

Abstract: This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hop-count metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput.This paper describes the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which allow them to use ETX. Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hop-count, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance. For long paths the throughput improvement is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks grow larger and paths become longer.

3,656 citations

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03 Nov 2004TL;DR: B-MAC's flexibility results in better packet delivery rates, throughput, latency, and energy consumption than S-MAC, and the need for flexible protocols to effectively realize energy efficient sensor network applications is illustrated.

Abstract: We propose B-MAC, a carrier sense media access protocol for wireless sensor networks that provides a flexible interface to obtain ultra low power operation, effective collision avoidance, and high channel utilization. To achieve low power operation, B-MAC employs an adaptive preamble sampling scheme to reduce duty cycle and minimize idle listening. B-MAC supports on-the-fly reconfiguration and provides bidirectional interfaces for system services to optimize performance, whether it be for throughput, latency, or power conservation. We build an analytical model of a class of sensor network applications. We use the model to show the effect of changing B-MAC's parameters and predict the behavior of sensor network applications. By comparing B-MAC to conventional 802.11-inspired protocols, specifically SMAC, we develop an experimental characterization of B-MAC over a wide range of network conditions. We show that B-MAC's flexibility results in better packet delivery rates, throughput, latency, and energy consumption than S-MAC. By deploying a real world monitoring application with multihop networking, we validate our protocol design and model. Our results illustrate the need for flexible protocols to effectively realize energy efficient sensor network applications.

3,631 citations