scispace - formally typeset
Topic

Tilt (optics)

About: Tilt (optics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12892 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 130653 citation(s).

...read more

Papers
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
David N. Mastronarde1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A new method was developed to acquire images automatically at a series of specimen tilts, as required for tomographic reconstruction, using changes in specimen position at previous tilt angles to predict the position at the current tilt angle.

...read more

Abstract: A new method was developed to acquire images automatically at a series of specimen tilts, as required for tomographic reconstruction. The method uses changes in specimen position at previous tilt angles to predict the position at the current tilt angle. Actual measurement of the position or focus is skipped if the statistical error of the prediction is low enough. This method allows a tilt series to be acquired rapidly when conditions are good but falls back toward the traditional approach of taking focusing and tracking images when necessary. The method has been implemented in a program, SerialEM, that provides an efficient environment for data acquisition. This program includes control of an energy filter as well as a low-dose imaging mode, in which tracking and focusing occur away from the area of interest. The program can automatically acquire a montage of overlapping frames, allowing tomography of areas larger than the field of the CCD camera. It also includes tools for navigating between specimen positions and finding regions of interest.

...read more

2,736 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The hand determination and refinement optimization procedure is applied to image pairs of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) catalytic core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus taken by low-dose electron cryomicroscopy.

...read more

Abstract: A computational procedure is described for assigning the absolute hand of the structure of a protein or assembly determined by single-particle electron microscopy. The procedure requires a pair of micrographs of the same particle field recorded at two tilt angles of a single tilt-axis specimen holder together with the three-dimensional map whose hand is being determined. For orientations determined from particles on one micrograph using the map, the agreement (average phase residual) between particle images on the second micrograph and map projections is determined for all possible choices of tilt angle and axis. Whether the agreement is better at the known tilt angle and axis of the microscope or its inverse indicates whether the map is of correct or incorrect hand. An increased discrimination of correct from incorrect hand (free hand difference), as well as accurate identification of the known values for the tilt angle and axis, can be used as targets for rapidly optimizing the search or refinement procedures used to determine particle orientations. Optimized refinement reduces the tendency for the model to match noise in a single image, thus improving the accuracy of the orientation determination and therefore the quality of the resulting map. The hand determination and refinement optimization procedure is applied to image pairs of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) catalytic core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus taken by low-dose electron cryomicroscopy. Structure factor amplitudes of a three-dimensional map of the E2 catalytic core obtained by averaging untilted images of 3667 icosahedral particles are compared to a scattering reference using a Guinier plot. A noise-dependent structure factor weight is derived and used in conjunction with a temperature factor (B=-1000A(2)) to restore high-resolution contrast without amplifying noise and to visualize molecular features to 8.7A resolution, according to a new objective criterion for resolution assessment proposed here.

...read more

1,572 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two computer programs are presented, CTFFIND3 and CTFTILT, which determine defocus parameters from images of untilted specimens, as well as defocus and tilt parameters from image of tilted specimens, respectively, using a simple algorithm.

...read more

Abstract: Accurate knowledge of defocus and tilt parameters is essential for the determination of three-dimensional protein structures at high resolution using electron microscopy. We present two computer programs, CTFFIND3 and CTFTILT, which determine defocus parameters from images of untilted specimens, as well as defocus and tilt parameters from images of tilted specimens, respectively. Both programs use a simple algorithm that fits the amplitude modulations visible in a power spectrum with a calculated contrast transfer function (CTF). The background present in the power spectrum is calculated using a low-pass filter. The background is then subtracted from the original power spectrum, allowing the fitting of only the oscillatory component of the CTF. CTFTILT determines specimen tilt parameters by measuring the defocus at a series of locations on the image while constraining them to a single plane. We tested the algorithm on images of two-dimensional crystals by comparing the results with those obtained using crystallographic methods. The images also contained contrast from carbon support film that added to the visibility of the CTF oscillations. The tests suggest that the fitting procedure is able to determine the image defocus with an error of about 10nm, whereas tilt axis and tilt angle are determined with an error of about 2 degrees and 1 degrees, respectively. Further tests were performed on images of single protein particles embedded in ice that were recorded from untilted or slightly tilted specimens. The visibility of the CTF oscillations from these images was reduced due to the lack of a carbon support film. Nevertheless, the test results suggest that the fitting procedure is able to determine image defocus and tilt angle with errors of about 100 nm and 6 degrees, respectively.

...read more

1,412 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

...read more

1,267 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J. H. Bruning1, D. R. Herriott1, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 1974-Applied Optics
TL;DR: The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

...read more

Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

...read more

1,145 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202211
2021344
2020427
2019504
2018475
2017417

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Huikai Xie

18 papers, 347 citations

Roberto Ragazzoni

11 papers, 116 citations

Fumio Ohtomo

9 papers, 91 citations

Olivier Guyon

8 papers, 71 citations

In-Sik Park

8 papers, 50 citations