Topic

# Time complexity

About: Time complexity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36062 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 879522 citation(s).

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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Abstract: In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and Akers [2], but with further restrictions on the ordering of decision variables in the graph. Although a function requires, in the worst case, a graph of size exponential in the number of arguments, many of the functions encountered in typical applications have a more reasonable representation. Our algorithms have time complexity proportional to the sizes of the graphs being operated on, and hence are quite efficient as long as the graphs do not grow too large. We present experimental results from applying these algorithms to problems in logic design verification that demonstrate the practicality of our approach.

8,721 citations

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TL;DR: A hierarchical agglomeration algorithm for detecting community structure which is faster than many competing algorithms: its running time on a network with n vertices and m edges is O (md log n) where d is the depth of the dendrogram describing the community structure.

Abstract: The discovery and analysis of community structure in networks is a topic of considerable recent interest within the physics community, but most methods proposed so far are unsuitable for very large networks because of their computational cost. Here we present a hierarchical agglomeration algorithm for detecting community structure which is faster than many competing algorithms: its running time on a network with n vertices and m edges is O (md log n) where d is the depth of the dendrogram describing the community structure. Many real-world networks are sparse and hierarchical, with m approximately n and d approximately log n, in which case our algorithm runs in essentially linear time, O (n log(2) n). As an example of the application of this algorithm we use it to analyze a network of items for sale on the web site of a large on-line retailer, items in the network being linked if they are frequently purchased by the same buyer. The network has more than 400 000 vertices and 2 x 10(6) edges. We show that our algorithm can extract meaningful communities from this network, revealing large-scale patterns present in the purchasing habits of customers.

5,826 citations

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TL;DR: Several properties of the graph-theoretic complexity are proved which show, for example, that complexity is independent of physical size and complexity depends only on the decision structure of a program.

Abstract: This paper describes a graph-theoretic complexity measure and illustrates how it can be used to manage and control program complexity. The paper first explains how the graph-theory concepts apply and gives an intuitive explanation of the graph concepts in programming terms. The control graphs of several actual Fortran programs are then presented to illustrate the correlation between intuitive complexity and the graph-theoretic complexity. Several properties of the graph-theoretic complexity are then proved which show, for example, that complexity is independent of physical size (adding or subtracting functional statements leaves complexity unchanged) and complexity depends only on the decision structure of a program.

4,749 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: It is proved that given a polytopeP and a strictly interior point a εP, there is a projective transformation of the space that mapsP, a toP′, a′ having the following property: the ratio of the radius of the smallest sphere with center a′, containingP′ to theradius of the largest sphere withCenter a′ contained inP′ isO(n).

Abstract: We present a new polynomial-time algorithm for linear programming. In the worst case, the algorithm requiresO(n
3.5
L) arithmetic operations onO(L) bit numbers, wheren is the number of variables andL is the number of bits in the input. The running-time of this algorithm is better than the ellipsoid algorithm by a factor ofO(n
2.5). We prove that given a polytopeP and a strictly interior point a eP, there is a projective transformation of the space that mapsP, a toP′, a′ having the following property. The ratio of the radius of the smallest sphere with center a′, containingP′ to the radius of the largest sphere with center a′ contained inP′ isO(n). The algorithm consists of repeated application of such projective transformations each followed by optimization over an inscribed sphere to create a sequence of points which converges to the optimal solution in polynomial time.

4,720 citations

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01 Jan 1988

Abstract: This book develops geometric techniques for proving the polynomial time solvability of problems in convexity theory, geometry, and - in particular - combinatorial optimization. It offers a unifying approach based on two fundamental geometric algorithms: - the ellipsoid method for finding a point in a convex set and - the basis reduction method for point lattices. The ellipsoid method was used by Khachiyan to show the polynomial time solvability of linear programming. The basis reduction method yields a polynomial time procedure for certain diophantine approximation problems. A combination of these techniques makes it possible to show the polynomial time solvability of many questions concerning poyhedra - for instance, of linear programming problems having possibly exponentially many inequalities. Utilizing results from polyhedral combinatorics, it provides short proofs of the poynomial time solvability of many combinatiorial optimization problems. For a number of these problems, the geometric algorithms discussed in this book are the only techniques known to derive polynomial time solvability. This book is a continuation and extension of previous research of the authors for which they received the Fulkerson Prize, awarded by the Mathematical Programming Society and the American Mathematical Society.

3,634 citations