Topic

# Timed automaton

About: Timed automaton is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2753 publications have been published within this topic receiving 70605 citations.

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TL;DR: Alur et al. as discussed by the authors proposed timed automata to model the behavior of real-time systems over time, and showed that the universality problem and the language inclusion problem are solvable only for the deterministic automata: both problems are undecidable (II i-hard) in the non-deterministic case and PSPACE-complete in deterministic case.

Abstract: Alur, R. and D.L. Dill, A theory of timed automata, Theoretical Computer Science 126 (1994) 183-235. We propose timed (j&e) automata to model the behavior of real-time systems over time. Our definition provides a simple, and yet powerful, way to annotate state-transition graphs with timing constraints using finitely many real-valued clocks. A timed automaton accepts timed words-infinite sequences in which a real-valued time of occurrence is associated with each symbol. We study timed automata from the perspective of formal language theory: we consider closure properties, decision problems, and subclasses. We consider both nondeterministic and deterministic transition structures, and both Biichi and Muller acceptance conditions. We show that nondeterministic timed automata are closed under union and intersection, but not under complementation, whereas deterministic timed Muller automata are closed under all Boolean operations. The main construction of the paper is an (PSPACE) algorithm for checking the emptiness of the language of a (nondeterministic) timed automaton. We also prove that the universality problem and the language inclusion problem are solvable only for the deterministic automata: both problems are undecidable (II i-hard) in the nondeterministic case and PSPACE-complete in the deterministic case. Finally, we discuss the application of this theory to automatic verification of real-time requirements of finite-state systems.

7,096 citations

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TL;DR: Finite automata are considered as instruments for classifying finite tapes as well as generalizations of the notion of an automaton are introduced and their relation to the classical automata is determined.

Abstract: Finite automata are considered in this paper as instruments for classifying finite tapes. Each one-tape automaton defines a set of tapes, a two-tape automaton defines a set of pairs of tapes, et cetera. The structure of the defined sets is studied. Various generalizations of the notion of an automaton are introduced and their relation to the classical automata is determined. Some decision problems concerning automata are shown to be solvable by effective algorithms; others turn out to be unsolvable by algorithms.

1,930 citations

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15 Dec 1951

TL;DR: This memorandum is devoted to an elementary exposition of the problems and of results obtained on the McCulloch-Pitts nerve net during investigations in August 1951.

Abstract: An elementary exposition of the problems and results obtained during investigations in August, 1951, of the kinds of events any finite automation can respond to by assuming one of certain states.

1,799 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved that the reachability problem is undecidable for timed automata augmented with a single stopwatch, and an (optimal) PSPACE reachability algorithm is given for the case of initialized rectangular automata.

Abstract: Hybrid automata model systems with both digital and analog components, such as embedded control programs. Many verification tasks for such programs can be expressed as reachability problems for hybrid automata. By improving on previous decidability and undecidability results, we identify a boundary between decidability and undecidability for the reachability problem of hybrid automata. On the positive side, we give an (optimal) PSPACE reachability algorithm for the case of initialized rectangular automata, where all analog variables follow independent trajectories within piecewise-linear envelopes and are reinitialized whenever the envelope changes. Our algorithm is based on the construction of a timed automaton that contains all reachability information about a given initialized rectangular automaton. The translation has practical significance for verification, because it guarantees the termination of symbolic procedures for the reachability analysis of initialized rectangular automata. The translation also preserves the?-languages of initialized rectangular automata with bounded nondeterminism. On the negative side, we show that several slight generalizations of initialized rectangular automata lead to an undecidable reachability problem. In particular, we prove that the reachability problem is undecidable for timed automata augmented with a single stopwatch.

903 citations

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TL;DR: The question of whether there is an automaton with n states which agrees with a finite set D of data is shown to be NP-complete, although identification-in-the-limit of finite automata is possible in polynomial time as a function of the size of D.

Abstract: The question of whether there is an automaton with n states which agrees with a finite set D of data is shown to be NP-complete, although identification-in-the-limit of finite automata is possible in polynomial time as a function of the size of D. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for D to be realizable by an automaton whose states are reachable from the initial state by a given set T of input strings. Although this question is also NP-complete, these conditions suggest heuristic approaches. Even if a solution to this problem were available, it is shown that finding a minimal set T does not necessarily give the smallest possible T.

819 citations