About: Tin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 50269 publications have been published within this topic receiving 664852 citations. The topic is also known as: Sn & element 50.
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TL;DR: It is found that the chemical and physical properties of these materials strongly depend on the preparation method, and the properties of the title hybrid materials with those of the "all-inorganic" CsSnI3 and CsPbI3 prepared using identical synthetic methods.
Abstract: A broad organic–inorganic series of hybrid metal iodide perovskites with the general formulation AMI3, where A is the methylammonium (CH3NH3+) or formamidinium (HC(NH2)2+) cation and M is Sn (1 and 2) or Pb (3 and 4) are reported. The compounds have been prepared through a variety of synthetic approaches, and the nature of the resulting materials is discussed in terms of their thermal stability and optical and electronic properties. We find that the chemical and physical properties of these materials strongly depend on the preparation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1–4 classifies the compounds in the perovskite structural family. Structural phase transitions were observed and investigated by temperature-dependent single crystal X-ray diffraction in the 100–400 K range. The charge transport properties of the materials are discussed in conjunction with diffuse reflectance studies in the mid-IR region that display characteristic absorption features. Temperature-dependent studies show a ...
TL;DR: A tin-based amorphous composite oxide (TCO) was synthesized in this paper to replace the carbon-based lithium intercalation materials currently in extensive use as the negative electrode (anode) of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.
Abstract: A high-capacity lithium-storage material in metal-oxide form has been synthesized that can replace the carbon-based lithium intercalation materials currently in extensive use as the negative electrode (anode) of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. This tin-based amorphous composite oxide (TCO) contains Sn(II)-O as the active center for lithium insertion and other glass-forming elements, which make up an oxide network. The TCO anode yields a specific capacity for reversible lithium adsorption more than 50 percent higher than those of the carbon families that persists after charge-discharge cycling when coupled with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode. Lithium-7 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements evidenced the high ionic state of lithium retained in the charged state, in which TCO accepted 8 moles of lithium ions per unit mole.
TL;DR: In this paper, perovskite solar cells containing tin rather than lead were reported, which have a power conversion efficiency of 5.7% and retain 80% of their performance over a period of 12 hours.
Abstract: Perovskite solar cells containing tin rather than lead, which is usually employed, are reported. These cells have a power conversion efficiency of 5.7% and retain 80% of their performance over a period of 12 hours.
TL;DR: In this paper, the first completely lead-free, CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite solar cell was constructed on a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold.
Abstract: Already exhibiting solar to electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 17%, organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising emerging contenders in the drive to provide a cheap and clean source of energy One concern however, is the potential toxicology issue of lead, a key component in the archetypical material The most likely substitute is tin, which like lead, is also a group 14 metal While organic–inorganic tin halide perovskites have shown good semiconducting behaviour, the instability of tin in its 2+ oxidation state has thus far proved to be an overwhelming challenge Here, we report the first completely lead-free, CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite solar cell processed on a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold, reaching efficiencies of over 6% under 1 sun illumination Remarkably, we achieve open circuit voltages over 088 V from a material which has a 123 eV band gap
TL;DR: In this article, an overview on lithium alloys and lithium alloying metals for use as anodes in ambient temperature rechargeable lithium batteries is given, with a brief introduction about advantages and drawbacks of lithium alloy anodes and a chronological review of their development.
Abstract: This article gives an overview on lithium alloys and lithium alloying metals for use as anodes in ambient temperature rechargeable lithium batteries. After a brief introduction about advantages and drawbacks of lithium alloy anodes and a chronological review of their development, principle concepts to overcome the problems with the dimensional stability of the metallic host materials will be presented. Recent work on promising multiphase (composite and/or intermetallic) tin-based lithium alloying materials will be highlighted.
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