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Tin oxide

About: Tin oxide is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11844 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 212073 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The study of tin oxide is motivated by its applications as a solid state gas sensor material, oxidation catalyst, and transparent conductor. This review describes the physical and chemical properties that make tin oxide a suitable material for these purposes. The emphasis is on surface science studies of single crystal surfaces, but selected studies on powder and polycrystalline films are also incorporated in order to provide connecting points between surface science studies with the broader field of materials science of tin oxide. The key for understanding many aspects of SnO 2 surface properties is the dual valency of Sn. The dual valency facilitates a reversible transformation of the surface composition from stoichiometric surfaces with Sn 4+ surface cations into a reduced surface with Sn 2+ surface cations depending on the oxygen chemical potential of the system. Reduction of the surface modifies the surface electronic structure by formation of Sn 5s derived surface states that lie deep within the band gap and also cause a lowering of the work function. The gas sensing mechanism appears, however, only to be indirectly influenced by the surface composition of SnO 2 . Critical for triggering a gas response are not the lattice oxygen concentration but chemisorbed (or ionosorbed) oxygen and other molecules with a net electric charge. Band bending induced by charged molecules cause the increase or decrease in surface conductivity responsible for the gas response signal. In most applications tin oxide is modified by additives to either increase the charge carrier concentration by donor atoms, or to increase the gas sensitivity or the catalytic activity by metal additives. Some of the basic concepts by which additives modify the gas sensing and catalytic properties of SnO 2 are discussed and the few surface science studies of doped SnO 2 are reviewed. Epitaxial SnO 2 films may facilitate the surface science studies of doped films in the future. To this end film growth on titania, alumina, and Pt(1 1 1) is reviewed. Thin films on alumina also make promising test systems for probing gas sensing behavior. Molecular adsorption and reaction studies on SnO 2 surfaces have been hampered by the challenges of preparing well-characterized surfaces. Nevertheless some experimental and theoretical studies have been performed and are reviewed. Of particular interest in these studies was the influence of the surface composition on its chemical properties. Finally, the variety of recently synthesized tin oxide nanoscopic materials is summarized.

2,039 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report our electrochemical and in situ x‐ray diffraction experiments on a variety of tin oxide based compounds; SnO, , , and glass, as cathodes opposite lithium metal in a rechargeable Li‐ion coin cell. These materials demonstrate discharge capacities on the order of 1000 mAh/(g Sn), which is consistent with the alloying capacity limit of 4.4 Li atoms per Sn atom, or 991 mAh/(g Sn). These materials also demonstrate significant irreversible capacities ranging from 200 mAh/(g active) to 700 mAh/(g active). In situ x‐ray diffraction experiments on these materials show that by introducing lithium, lithium oxide and tin form first, which is then followed by the formation of the various Li‐Sn alloy phases. When lithium is removed the original material does not reform. The ending composition is metallic tin, presumably mixed with amorphous lithium oxide. The oxygen from the tin oxide in the starting material bonds irreversibly with lithium to form an amorphous matrix. The Li‐Sn alloying process is quite reversible; perhaps due to the formation of this lithia "matrix" which helps to keep the electrode particles mechanically connected together.

1,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Aug 2010-Angewandte Chemie
TL;DR: Light-induced water splitting over iron oxide (hematite) has been achieved by using a particle-assisted deposition technique and IrO2-based surface catalysis and these photocurrents are unmatched by any other oxide-based photoanode.
Abstract: Revved-up rust! Light-induced water splitting over iron oxide (hematite) has been achieved by using a particle-assisted deposition technique and IrO2-based surface catalysis. Photocurrents in excess of 3 mA cm-2 were obtained at +1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5 G 100 mW cm-2 simulated sunlight. These photocurrents are unmatched by any other oxide-based photoanode. FTO=fluorine-doped tin oxide. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

884 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Pramod S. Patil

24 papers, 993 citations

Imtiaz S. Mulla

18 papers, 588 citations

Elson Longo

16 papers, 752 citations

Gar B. Hoflund

14 papers, 506 citations

Thaiyan Mahalingam

12 papers, 284 citations