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Tired light

About: Tired light is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 85 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1578 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the Cosmology Project (SCP) to fit R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z).
Abstract: R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the composite curve. The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF ~;~; 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects.

387 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) to fit R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the SCP to templates allowing a free parameter w = s(1+z).
Abstract: R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w = s(1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ``composite curve''. The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z,and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B-band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi^2/DoF approx = 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the date of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1+z light-curve time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects.

285 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some of the principal facts which any cosmological theory will have to account for are pointed out and a new effect of masses upon light will be suggested which is a sort of gravitational analogue of the Compton effect.
Abstract: It is known that very distant nebulae, probably galactic systems like our own, show remarkably high receding velocities whose magnitude increases with the distance. This curious phenomenon promises to provide some important clues for the future development of our cosmological views. It may be of advantage, therefore, to point out some of the principal facts which any cosmological theory will have to account for. Then a brief discussion will be given of different theoretical suggestions related to the above effect. Finally, a new effect of masses upon light will be suggested which is a sort of gravitational analogue of the Compton effect.

189 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The peak star formation intensity in starburst galaxies does not vary significantly from the local universe to redshift up to 6 as mentioned in this paper, which is consistent with standard expanding cosmology and strongly inconsistent with the tired light model.
Abstract: The peak star formation intensity in starburst galaxies does not vary significantly from the local universe to redshift -->z ~ 6. We arrive at this conclusion through new surface brightness measurements of 47 starburst galaxies at -->z 5?6, doubling the redshift range for such observations. These galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) through the GRism ACS program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) project. The starburst intensity limit for galaxies at -->z 5?6 agrees with those at -->z 3?4 and -->z 0 to within a factor of a few, after correcting for cosmological surface brightness dimming and for dust. The most natural interpretation of this constancy over cosmic time is that the same physical mechanisms limit starburst intensity at all redshifts up to -->z 6 (be they galactic winds, gravitational instability, or something else). We do see two trends with redshift: First, the UV spectral slope (?) of galaxies at -->z 5?6 is bluer than that of -->z 3 galaxies, suggesting an increase in dust content over time. Second, the galaxy sizes from -->z 3 to 6 scale approximately as the Hubble parameter -->H?1(z) . Thus, galaxies at -->z 6 are high-redshift starbursts, much like their local analogs except for slightly bluer colors, smaller physical sizes, and correspondingly lower overall luminosities. If we now assume a constant maximum star formation intensity, the differences in observed surface brightness between -->z 0 and 6 are consistent with standard expanding cosmology and strongly inconsistent with the tired light model.

100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Tolman surface brightness depression with redshift using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data from Paper III for 34 early-type galaxies from the three clusters Cl 1324+3011 (z = 0.76), Cl 1604+4304 (z= 0.90), and Cl 16 04+4321 (z.37 ± 0.13) in the I band.
Abstract: We review a sample of the early literature in which the reality of the expansion is discussed. Hubble's reluctance, even as late as 1953, to accept the expansion as real is explained as due to his use of equations for distances and absolute magnitudes of redshifted galaxies that do not conform to the modern Mattig equations of the standard model. The Tolman surface brightness test, once the only known test for the reality of the expansion, is contrasted with three other modern tests. These are (1) the time dilation in Type Ia supernovae light curves, (2) the temperature of the relic radiation as a function of redshift, and (3) the surface brightness normalization of the Planckian shape of the relic radiation. We search for the Tolman surface brightness depression with redshift using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data from Paper III for 34 early-type galaxies from the three clusters Cl 1324+3011 (z = 0.76), Cl 1604+4304 (z = 0.90), and Cl 1604+4321 (z = 0.92). Depressions of the surface brightness relative to the zero-redshift fiducial lines in the mean surface brightness–logarithm of the linear radius diagrams of Paper I are found for all three clusters. Expressed as the exponent, n, in 2.5 log (1 + z)n mag, the value of n averaged over Petrosian radii of η = 1.7 and η = 2.0 for all three clusters is n = 2.59 ± 0.17 in the R band and 3.37 ± 0.13 in the I band for a q0 = 1/2 model. The sensitivity of the result to the assumed value of q0 is shown to be less than 23% between q = 0 and +1. The conclusion is that the exponent on (1 + z) varies from 2.28 to 2.81 (± 0.17) in the R band and 3.06 to 3.55 (± 0.13) in the I band, depending on the value of q0. For a true Tolman signal with n = 4, the luminosity evolution in the look-back time, expressed as the exponent in 2.5 log (1 + z)4-n mag, must then be between 1.72 to 1.19 (± 0.17) in the R band and 0.94 to 0.45 (± 0.13) in the I band. We show that this is precisely the range expected from the evolutionary models of Bruzual and Charlot and other measurements of the luminosity evolution of early-type galaxies. We conclude that the Tolman surface brightness test is consistent with the reality of the expansion to within the combined errors of the observed SB depression and the theoretical correction for luminosity evolution. We have also used the high-redshift HST data to test the "tired light" speculation for a nonexpansion model for the redshift. The HST data rule out the tired light model at a significance level of better than 10 σ.

99 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20214
20194
20182
20172
20165
20156