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Tocilizumab

About: Tocilizumab is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3467 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 89961 citation(s). The topic is also known as: MRA & R-1569.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2005615117
Xiaoling Xu1, Mingfeng Han, Tiantian Li1, Wei Sun  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: After analyzing the immune characteristics of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we have identified that pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes with large amount of interleukin 6 secreting may incite the inflammatory storm, which may potentially be curbed through monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 pathways. Here, we aimed to assess the efficacy of tocilizumab in severe patients with COVID-19 and seek a therapeutic strategy. The patients diagnosed as severe or critical COVID-19 in The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (Anhui Provincial Hospital) and Anhui Fuyang Second People’s Hospital were given tocilizumab in addition to routine therapy between 5 and 14 February 2020. The changes of clinical manifestations, computerized tomography (CT) scan image, and laboratory examinations were retrospectively analyzed. Fever returned to normal on the first day, and other symptoms improved remarkably within a few days. Within 5 d after tocilizumab, 15 of the 20 patients (75.0%) had lowered their oxygen intake, and 1 patient needed no oxygen therapy. CT scans manifested that the lung lesion opacity absorbed in 19 patients (90.5%). The percentage of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, which decreased in 85.0% of patients (17/20) before treatment (mean, 15.52 ± 8.89%), returned to normal in 52.6% of patients (10/19) on the fifth day after treatment. Abnormally elevated C-reactive protein decreased significantly in 84.2% of patients (16/19). No obvious adverse reactions were observed. All patients have been discharged on average 15.1 d after giving tocilizumab. Preliminary data show that tocilizumab, which improved the clinical outcome immediately in severe and critical COVID-19 patients, is an effective treatment to reduce mortality.

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Topics: Tocilizumab (56%)

1,794 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/CSHPERSPECT.A016295
Abstract: Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases.

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Topics: Tocilizumab (65%), Arthritis (55%), Interleukin 6 (53%) ...read more

1,574 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1182/BLOOD-2014-05-552729
10 Jul 2014-Blood
Abstract: As immune-based therapies for cancer become potent, more effective, and more widely available, optimal management of their unique toxicities becomes increasingly important. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a potentially life-threatening toxicity that has been observed following administration of natural and bispecific antibodies and, more recently, following adoptive T-cell therapies for cancer. CRS is associated with elevated circulating levels of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon γ, and uncontrolled studies demonstrate that immunosuppression using tocilizumab, an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, with or without corticosteroids, can reverse the syndrome. However, because early and aggressive immunosuppression could limit the efficacy of the immunotherapy, current approaches seek to limit administration of immunosuppressive therapy to patients at risk for life-threatening consequences of the syndrome. This report presents a novel system to grade the severity of CRS in individual patients and a treatment algorithm for management of CRS based on severity. The goal of our approach is to maximize the chance for therapeutic benefit from the immunotherapy while minimizing the risk for life threatening complications of CRS.

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Topics: Cytokine release syndrome (55%), Tocilizumab (53%), Immunotherapy (52%) ...read more

1,537 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60453-5
22 Mar 2008-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Interleukin 6 is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis via its broad effects on immune and inflammatory responses. Our aim was to assess the therapeutic effects of blocking interleukin 6 by inhibition of the interleukin-6 receptor with tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group phase III study, 623 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly assigned with an interactive voice response system, stratified by site with a randomisation list provided by the study sponsor, to receive tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (n=205), tocilizumab 4 mg/kg (214), or placebo (204) intravenously every 4 weeks, with methotrexate at stable pre-study doses (10–25 mg/week). Rescue therapy with tocilizumab 8 mg/kg was offered at week 16 to patients with less than 20% improvement in both swollen and tender joint counts. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with 20% improvement in signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20 response) at week 24. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00106548. Findings The intention-to-treat analysis population consisted of 622 patients: one patient in the 4 mg/kg group did not receive study treatment and was thus excluded. At 24 weeks, ACR20 responses were seen in more patients receiving tocilizumab than in those receiving placebo (120 [59%] patients in the 8 mg/kg group, 102 [48%] in the 4 mg/kg group, 54 [26%] in the placebo group; odds ratio 4·0 [95% CI 2·6–6·1], p vs placebo; and 2·6 [1·7–3·9], p vs placebo). More people receiving tocilizumab than those receiving placebo had at least one adverse event (143 [69%] in the 8 mg/kg group; 151 [71%] in the 4 mg/kg group; 129 [63%] in the placebo group). The most common serious adverse events were serious infections or infestations, reported by six patients in the 8 mg/kg group, three in the 4 mg/kg group, and two in the placebo group. Interpretation Tocilizumab could be an effective therapeutic approach in patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis. Funding F Hoffmann-La Roche, Chugai Pharmaceutical.

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Topics: Tocilizumab (58%), Placebo (53%), Rheumatoid arthritis (52%) ...read more

1,262 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHOM.2020.04.009
Abstract: Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab; off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.

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Topics: Immune dysregulation (63%), Immune system (55%), Cytokine (54%) ...read more

1,083 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20224
2021624
2020626
2019262
2018230
2017256

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Tadamitsu Kishimoto

43 papers, 6.4K citations

Norihiro Nishimoto

34 papers, 3.2K citations

Tsutomu Takeuchi

30 papers, 1.8K citations

Atsushi Ogata

23 papers, 1K citations

Toshio Tanaka

22 papers, 1.4K citations

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