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Total electron content

About: Total electron content is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3999 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 73935 citation(s).

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Abstract: A worldwide network of receivers tracking the transmissions of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites represents a new source of ionospheric data that is globally distributed and continuously available. We describe a technique for retrieving the global distribution of vertical total electron content (TEC) from GPS-based measurements. The approach is based on interpolating TEC within triangular tiles that tessellate the ionosphere modeled as a thin spherical shell. The high spatial resolution of pixel-based methods, where widely separated regions can be retrieved independently of each other, is combined with the efficient retrieval of gradients characteristic of polynomial fitting. TEC predictions from climatological models are incorporated as simulated data to bridge significant gaps between measurements. Time sequences of global TEC maps are formed by incrementally updating the most recent retrieval with the newest data as it becomes available. This Kalman filtering approach smooths the maps in time, and provides time-resolved covariance information, useful for mapping the formal error of each global TEC retrieval. Preliminary comparisons with independent vertical TEC data, available from the TOPEX dual-frequency altimeter, suggest that the maps can accurately reproduce spatial and temporal ionospheric variations over latitudes ranging from equatorial to about ±65°.

1,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time dependent ionospheric electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and at the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly tailored for trans-ionospheric applications that allows one to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere and thus the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path by means of numerical integration. Taking advantage of the increasing amount of available data, the model formulation is continuously updated to improve NeQuick capabilities to provide representations of the ionosphere at global scales. Recently, major changes have been introduced in the model topside formulation and important modifications have also been introduced in the bottomside description. In addition, specific revisions have been applied to the computer package associated to NeQuick in order to improve its computational efficiency. It has therefore been considered appropriate to finalize all the model developments in a new version of the NeQuick. In the present work the main features of NeQuick 2 are illustrated and some results related to validation tests are reported.

472 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the estimation of the ionospheric total electron content from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables, various instrumental systematic effects such as the biases in the GPS satellites and receivers must be modeled. This paper describes a procedure, based on a Kalman filtering approach, for estimating these instrumental biases as well as the total electron content at each GPS station, using dual GPS data. The method is applied to six data sets, of 48 hours each, spanning one year, from the Deep Space Network with GPS stations in Australia, Spain, and the United States. The formal errors for the estimated satellite biases and for the total electron content at each station are about 0.07 ns and 0.2×1016 el/m2, respectively. The variation in time of the satellite biases (relative to the mean of all of them) estimated in different epochs during 1-year period, is below 1 ns.

419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: . In this paper we examine pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies by the total electron content (TEC) derived from a ground-based receiver of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A 15-day running median of the TEC and the associated inter-quartile range (IQR) are utilized as a reference for identifying abnormal signals during all of the 20M≥6.0 earthquakes in the Taiwan area from September 1999 to December 2002. Results show that the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies appear during 18:00–22:00LT (LT=UT+8h) within 5 days prior to 16 of the 20M≥6.0 earthquakes. This success rate of 80% (=16/20%) suggests that the GPS TEC is useful to register pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies appearing before large earthquakes. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions)

395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The conclusions achieved are: (1) the levelled carrier-phase ionospheric observable is affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multi-path through the levelling procedure; and (2) receiver IFB may experience significant changes during 1 day.
Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become a powerful tool for ionospheric studies. In addition, ionospheric corrections are necessary for the augmentation systems required for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) use. Dual-frequency carrier-phase and code-delay GPS observations are combined to obtain ionospheric observables related to the slant total electron content (sTEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight (LoS). This observable is affected by inter-frequency biases [IFB; often called differential code biases (DCB)] due to the transmitting and the receiving hardware. These biases must be estimated and eliminated from the data in order to calibrate the experimental sTEC obtained from GPS observations. Based on the analysis of single differences of the ionospheric observations obtained from pairs of co-located dual-frequency GPS receivers, this research addresses two major issues: (1) assessing the errors translated from the code-delay to the carrier-phase ionospheric observable by the so-called levelling process, applied to reduce carrier-phase ambiguities from the data; and (2) assessing the short-term stability of receiver IFB. The conclusions achieved are: (1) the levelled carrier-phase ionospheric observable is affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multi-path through the levelling procedure; and (2) receiver IFB may experience significant changes during 1 day. The magnitude of both effects depends on the receiver/antenna configuration. Levelling errors found in this research vary from 1.4 total electron content units (TECU) to 5.3 TECU. In addition, intra-day vaiations of code-delay receiver IFB ranging from 1.4 to 8.8 TECU were detected.

381 citations

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