About: Toxoid is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4198 publications have been published within this topic receiving 112678 citations. The topic is also known as: Anatoxin.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Evidence is provided that antigen-binding assays may even underestimate the contribution of IgG4 antibodies, because in contrast to IgG1 antibodies, IgG 4 antibodies act as monovalent antibodies in being unable to cross-link immunosorbent-bound antigen and radiolabeled antigen.
Abstract: Labeled antigen-binding tests were used to determine quantitatively the contribution of IgG4 antibodies to the total IgG antibody response in humans In agreement with literature, we found no IgG4-restricted antibody responses with tetanus toxoid or streptococcal carbohydrate In the serum of individuals immunized for several years with phospholipase (PLA) from honey bee venom, grass pollen allergen, or house dust mite allergen, we often found that more than 50% of the total antigen-binding capacity was due to IgG4 antibodies In the case of beekeepers, it could clearly be shown that during prolonged immunization a shift in the IgG4:IgG1 antibody ratio occurs that finally results in an IgG4-dominated antibody response Evidence is provided that antigen-binding assays may even underestimate the contribution of IgG4 antibodies, because in contrast to IgG1 antibodies, IgG4 antibodies act as monovalent antibodies in being unable to cross-link immunosorbent-bound antigen and radiolabeled antigen
TL;DR: The updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.
Abstract: In October 2011, in an effort to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that unvaccinated pregnant women receive a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap). Vaccination of women with Tdap during pregnancy is expected to provide some protection to infants from pertussis until they are old enough to be vaccinated themselves. Tdap given to pregnant women will stimulate the development of maternal antipertussis antibodies, which will pass through the placenta, likely providing the newborn with protection against pertussis in early life, and will protect the mother from pertussis around the time of delivery, making her less likely to become infected and transmit pertussis to her infant. The 2011 Tdap recommendation did not call for vaccinating pregnant women previously vaccinated with Tdap. On October 24, 2012, ACIP voted to recommend use of Tdap during every pregnancy. This report summarizes data considered and conclusions made by ACIP and provides guidance for implementing its recommendations. These updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.
TL;DR: This first synthetic peptide parenteral vaccine against a communicable disease tested in man is safe and stimulates biologically active antibodies, which encourage the development of improved vaccine formulations which, by enhancing immunogenicity, may lead to practical vaccines to assist in the control of falciparum malaria.
Abstract: A 12 amino-acid synthetic peptide (NANP)3 comprising the immunodominant epitope of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide, and administered intramuscularly in three doses at monthly intervals to 35 healthy males as a malaria vaccine. No significant adverse reactions were noted, with mild soreness at the injection site the only common symptom. Seroconversions against NANP occurred in 53% and 71% of recipients of 100 or 160 micrograms, respectively, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most ELISA-positive sera reacted with sporozoites by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Three vaccinees with the highest ELISA and IFA titres and four unimmunized controls were challenged with P. falciparum sporozoites introduced via the bites of infective Anopheles mosquitoes. Blood stage parasites were detected in all controls by 10 days (mean 8.5 days, range 7-10). In contrast, the two vaccinees who became infected did not manifest parasitaemia until day 11 and the third vacinee showed neither parasites nor symptoms during the 29 day observation period. This first synthetic peptide parenteral vaccine against a communicable disease tested in man is safe and stimulates biologically active antibodies. These observations encourage the development of improved vaccine formulations which, by enhancing immunogenicity, may lead to practical vaccines to assist in the control of falciparum malaria.
TL;DR: Adolescents aged 11-18 years should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphTheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series.
Abstract: During spring 2005, two tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) products formulated for use in adolescents (and, for one product, use in adults) were licensed in the United States (BOOSTRIX, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium [licensed May 3, 2005, for use in persons aged 10-18 years], and ADACEL, sanofi pasteur, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [licensed June 10, 2005, for use in persons aged 11-64 years]). Prelicensure studies demonstrated safety and efficacy against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis when Tdap was administered as a single booster dose to adolescents. To reduce pertussis morbidity in adolescents and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria protection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that: 1) adolescents aged 11-18 years should receive a single dose of Tdap instead of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP)/ diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccination series (five doses of pediatric DTP/DTaP before the seventh birthday; if the fourth dose was administered on or after the fourth birthday, the fifth dose is not needed) and have not received Td or Tdap. The preferred age for Tdap vaccination is 11-12 years; 2) adolescents aged 11-18 years who received Td, but not Tdap, are encouraged to receive a single dose of Tdap to provide protection against pertussis if they have completed the recommended childhood DTP/DTaP vaccination series. An interval of at least 5 years between Td and Tdap is encouraged to reduce the risk for local and systemic reactions after Tdap vaccination. However, an interval less than 5 years between Td and Tdap can be used; and 3) vaccine providers should administer Tdap and tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menactra, sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania) to adolescents aged 11-18 years during the same visit if both vaccines are indicated and available. This statement 1) reviews tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccination policy in the United States, with emphasis on adolescents; 2) describes the clinical features and epidemiology of pertussis among adolescents; 3) summarizes the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data of the two Tdap vaccines licensed for use among adolescents; and 4) presents recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination among adolescents aged 11-18 years.
TL;DR: Results indicate that biodegradable and biocompatible microspheres represent an adjuvant system with potentially widespread application in the induction of both circulating and mucosal immunity.
Abstract: The utility of biodegradable and biocompatible microspheres as a vaccine delivery system for the induction of systemic and disseminated mucosal antibody responses was investigated. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection into mice of 1-10 microns microspheres, constructed of the copolymer poly(DL-lactide-coglycolide) (DL-PLG) which contained approximately 1% by weight a formalinized toxoid vaccine of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), dramatically potentiated the circulating IgG anti-toxin antibody response as compared to the free toxoid. The initiation of vaccine release was delayed in larger microspheres, and a mixture of 1-10 and 20-50 microns microspheres stimulated both a primary and an anamnestic secondary anti-toxin response following a single injection. However, neither free nor microencapsulated SEB toxoid induced a detectable mucosal IgA anti-toxin response following systemic injection. In contrast, three peroral immunizations with toxoid-microspheres stimulated circulating IgM, IgG and IgA anti-toxin antibodies and a concurrent mucosal IgA response in saliva, gut washings and lung washings. Systemic immunization with microencapsulated toxoid primed for the induction of disseminated mucosal IgA responses by subsequent oral or intratracheal (it) boosting in microspheres, while soluble toxoid was ineffective at boosting. These results indicate that biodegradable and biocompatible microspheres represent an adjuvant system with potentially widespread application in the induction of both circulating and mucosal immunity.
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