About: Trace gas is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4026 publications have been published within this topic receiving 140287 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of California, Berkeley1, University of Bayreuth2, Oak Ridge National Laboratory3, United States Department of Agriculture4, University of Montana5, Oregon State University6, Dresden University of Technology7, Duke University8, Yale University9, University of Edinburgh10, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration11, Harvard University12, San Diego State University13, Technical University of Denmark14, Indiana University15, Tuscia University16, University of Nebraska–Lincoln17, University of Helsinki18
TL;DR: The FLUXNET project as mentioned in this paper is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere.
Abstract: FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes temperate conifer and broadleaved (deciduous and evergreen) forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra. Sites exist on five continents and their latitudinal distribution ranges from 70°N to 30°S. FLUXNET has several primary functions. First, it provides infrastructure for compiling, archiving, and distributing carbon, water, and energy flux measurement, and meteorological, plant, and soil data to the science community. (Data and site information are available online at the FLUXNET Web site, http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET/.) Second, the project supports calibration and flux intercomparison activities. This activity ensures that data from the regional networks are intercomparable. And third, FLUXNET supports the synthesis, discussion, and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops, and visiting scientists. The overarching goal is to provide information for validating computations of net primary productivity, evaporation, and energy absorption that are being generated by sensors mounted on the NASA Terra satellite. Data being compiled by FLUXNET are being used to quantify and compare magnitudes and dynamics of annual ecosystem carbon and water balances, to quantify the response of stand-scale carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities to controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and to validate a hierarchy of soil–plant–atmosphere trace gas exchange models. Findings so far include 1) net CO 2 exchange of temperate broadleaved forests increases by about 5.7 g C m −2 day −1 for each additional day that the growing season is extended; 2) the sensitivity of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange to sunlight doubles if the sky is cloudy rather than clear; 3) the spectrum of CO 2 flux density exhibits peaks at timescales of days, weeks, and years, and a spectral gap exists at the month timescale; 4) the optimal temperature of net CO 2 exchange varies with mean summer temperature; and 5) stand age affects carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities.
TL;DR: A brief history of the science of ozone depletion and a conceptual framework to explain the key processes involved, with a focus on chemistry is described in this article, and observations of ozone and of chlorine-related trace gases near 40 km provide evidence that gas phase chemistry has indeed currently depleted about 10% of the stratospheric ozone there as predicted, and the vertical and horizontal struc- tures of this depletion are fingerprints for that process.
Abstract: Stratospheric ozone depletion through cat- alytic chemistry involving man-made chlorofluorocar- bons is an area of focus in the study of geophysics and one of the global environmental issues of the twentieth century. This review presents a brief history of the sci- ence of ozone depletion and describes a conceptual framework to explain the key processes involved, with a focus on chemistry. Observations that may be considered as evidence (fingerprints) of ozone depletion due to chlorofluorocarbons are explored, and the related gas phase and surface chemistry is described. Observations of ozone and of chlorine-related trace gases near 40 km provide evidence that gas phase chemistry has indeed currently depleted about 10% of the stratospheric ozone there as predicted, and the vertical and horizontal struc- tures of this depletion are fingerprints for that process. More striking changes are observed each austral spring in Antarctica, where about half of the total ozone col- umn is depleted each September, forming the Antarctic ozone hole. Measurements of large amounts of ClO, a key ozone destruction catalyst, are among the finger- prints showing that human releases of chlorofluorocar- bons are the primary cause of this change. Enhanced ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic regions is linked to heterogeneous chlorine chemistry that oc- curs on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds at cold temperatures. Observations also show that some of the same heterogeneous chemistry occurs on the surfaces of particles present at midlatitudes as well, and the abundances of these particles are enhanced following explosive volcanic eruptions. The partition- ing of chlorine between active forms that destroy ozone and inert reservoirs that sequester it is a central part of the framework for our understanding of the 40-km ozone decline, the Antarctic ozone hole, the recent Arctic ozone losses in particularly cold years, and the observation of record midlatitude ozone de- pletion after the major eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the early 1990s. As human use of chlorofluorocarbons continues to decrease, these changes throughout the ozone layer are expected to gradually reverse during the twenty-first century.
TL;DR: It is completely unclear how important microbial diversity is for the control of trace gas flux at the ecosystem level, and different microbial communities may be part of the reason for differences in trace gas metabolism, e.g., effects of nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 uptake by soil; decrease of CH4 production with decreasing temperature.
Abstract: Production and consumption processes in soils contribute to the global cycles of many trace gases (CH4, CO, OCS, H2, N2O, and NO) that are relevant for atmospheric chemistry and climate. Soil microbial processes contribute substantially to the budgets of atmospheric trace gases. The flux of trace gases between soil and atmosphere is usually the result of simultaneously operating production and consumption processes in soil: The relevant processes are not yet proven with absolute certainty, but the following are likely for trace gas consumption: H2 oxidation by abiontic soil enzymes; CO cooxidation by the ammonium monooxygenase of nitrifying bacteria; CH4 oxidation by unknown methanotrophic bacteria that utilize CH4 for growth; OCS hydrolysis by bacteria containing carbonic anhydrase; N2O reduction to N2 by denitrifying bacteria; NO consumption by either reduction to N2O in denitrifiers or oxidation to nitrate in heterotrophic bacteria. Wetland soils, in contrast to upland soils are generally anoxic and thus support the production of trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, N2O, and NO) by anaerobic bacteria such as fermenters, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate reducers, and denitrifiers. Methane is the dominant gaseous product of anaerobic degradation of organic matter and is released into the atmosphere, whereas the other trace gases are only intermediates, which are mostly cycled within the anoxic habitat. A significant percentage of the produced methane is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria at anoxic-oxic interfaces such as the soil surface and the root surface of aquatic plants that serve as conduits for O2 transport into and CH4 transport out of the wetland soils. The dominant production processes in upland soils are different from those in wetland soils and include H2 production by biological N2 fixation, CO production by chemical decomposition of soil organic matter, and NO and N2O production by nitrification and denitrification. The processes responsible for CH4 production in upland soils are completely unclear, as are the OCS production processes in general. A problem for future research is the attribution of trace gas metabolic processes not only to functional groups of microorganisms but also to particular taxa. Thus, it is completely unclear how important microbial diversity is for the control of trace gas flux at the ecosystem level. However, different microbial communities may be part of the reason for differences in trace gas metabolism, e.g., effects of nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 uptake by soil; decrease of CH4 production with decreasing temperature; or different rates and modes of NO and N2O production in different soils and under different conditions.
29 Oct 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the bulk composition, structure, and dynamics of the atmosphere and discuss the chemistry of the Troposphere: the Methane Oxidation Cycle, ozone, and sulfur compounds.
Abstract: Bulk Composition, Structure, and Dynamics of the Atmosphere. Photochemical Processes and Elementary Reactions. Chemistry of the Stratosphere. Chemistry of the Troposphere: The Methane Oxidation Cycle. Ozone in the Troposphere. Hydrocarbons, Halocarbons, and Other Volatile Organic Compounds. The Atmospheric Aerosol. Chemistry of Clouds and Precipitation. Nitrogen Compounds in the Troposphere. Sulfur Compounds in the Atmosphere. Geochemistry of Carbon Dioxide. The Evolution of the Atmosphere. References. Appendix: Supplementary Tables.
TL;DR: The Ozone Monitoring Instrument is a ultraviolet/visible nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 km/spl times/24 km and will enable detection of air pollution on urban scale resolution.
Abstract: The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 km/spl times/24 km. Trace gases measured include O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. In addition, OMI will measure aerosol characteristics, cloud top heights, and UV irradiance at the surface. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage will be a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI's high spatial resolution is unprecedented and will enable detection of air pollution on urban scale resolution. In this paper, the instrument and its performance will be discussed.
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