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Transactional memory

About: Transactional memory is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2365 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 60818 citation(s).


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Simulation results show that transactional memory matches or outperforms the best known locking techniques for simple benchmarks, even in the absence of priority inversion, convoying, and deadlock.
Abstract: A shared data structure is lock-free if its operations do not require mutual exclusion. If one process is interrupted in the middle of an operation, other processes will not be prevented from operating on that object. In highly concurrent systems, lock-free data structures avoid common problems associated with conventional locking techniques, including priority inversion, convoying, and difficulty of avoiding deadlock. This paper introduces transactional memory, a new multiprocessor architecture intended to make lock-free synchronization as efficient (and easy to use) as conventional techniques based on mutual exclusion. Transactional memory allows programmers to define customized read-modify-write operations that apply to multiple, independently-chosen words of memory. It is implemented by straightforward extensions to any multiprocessor cache-coherence protocol. Simulation results show that transactional memory matches or outperforms the best known locking techniques for simple benchmarks, even in the absence of priority inversion, convoying, and deadlock.

2,371 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Aug 1995
TL;DR: STM is used to provide a general highly concurrent method for translating sequential object implementations to non-blocking ones based on implementing a k-word compare&swap STM-transaction, a novel software method for supporting flexible transactional programming of synchronization operations.
Abstract: As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronization operations greatly simplifies the task of designing highly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existing hardware is inflexible and is at best on the level of a Load–Linked/Store–Conditional operation on a single word. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronization methodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offer software transactional memory (STM), a novel software method for supporting flexible transactional programming of synchronization operations. STM is non-blocking, and can be implemented on existing machines using only a Load–Linked/Store–Conditional operation. We use STM to provide a general highly concurrent method for translating sequential object implementations to non-blocking ones based on implementing a k-word compare&swap STM-transaction. Empirical evidence collected on simulated multiprocessor architectures shows that our method always outperforms the non-blocking translation methods in the style of Barnes, and outperforms Herlihy’s translation method for sufficiently large numbers of processors. The key to the efficiency of our software-transactional approach is that unlike Barnes style methods, it is not based on a costly “recursive helping” policy.

1,353 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Jul 2003
TL;DR: A new form of software transactional memory designed to support dynamic-sized data structures, and a novel non-blocking implementation of this STM that uses modular contention managers to ensure progress in practice.
Abstract: We propose a new form of software transactional memory (STM) designed to support dynamic-sized data structures, and we describe a novel non-blocking implementation. The non-blocking property we consider is obstruction-freedom. Obstruction-freedom is weaker than lock-freedom; as a result, it admits substantially simpler and more efficient implementations. A novel feature of our obstruction-free STM implementation is its use of modular contention managers to ensure progress in practice. We illustrate the utility of our dynamic STM with a straightforward implementation of an obstruction-free red-black tree, thereby demonstrating a sophisticated non-blocking dynamic data structure that would be difficult to implement by other means. We also present the results of simple preliminary performance experiments that demonstrate that an "early release" feature of our STM is useful for reducing contention, and that our STM lends itself to the effective use of modular contention managers.

1,055 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
30 Sep 2008
TL;DR: This paper introduces the Stanford Transactional Application for Multi-Processing (STAMP), a comprehensive benchmark suite for evaluating TM systems and uses the suite to evaluate six different TM systems, identify their shortcomings, and motivate further research on their performance characteristics.
Abstract: Transactional Memory (TM) is emerging as a promising technology to simplify parallel programming. While several TM systems have been proposed in the research literature, we are still missing the tools and workloads necessary to analyze and compare the proposals. Most TM systems have been evaluated using microbenchmarks, which may not be representative of any real-world behavior, or individual applications, which do not stress a wide range of execution scenarios. We introduce the Stanford Transactional Application for Multi-Processing (STAMP), a comprehensive benchmark suite for evaluating TM systems. STAMP includes eight applications and thirty variants of input parameters and data sets in order to represent several application domains and cover a wide range of transactional execution cases (frequent or rare use of transactions, large or small transactions, high or low contention, etc.). Moreover, STAMP is portable across many types of TM systems, including hardware, software, and hybrid systems. In this paper, we provide descriptions and a detailed characterization of the applications in STAMP. We also use the suite to evaluate six different TM systems, identify their shortcomings, and motivate further research on their performance characteristics.

901 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This paper introduces the transactional locking II (TL2) algorithm, a software transactional memory (STM) algorithm based on a combination of commit-time locking and a novel global version-clock based validation technique, which is ten-fold faster than a single lock.
Abstract: The transactional memory programming paradigm is gaining momentum as the approach of choice for replacing locks in concurrent programming. This paper introduces the transactional locking II (TL2) algorithm, a software transactional memory (STM) algorithm based on a combination of commit-time locking and a novel global version-clock based validation technique. TL2 improves on state-of-the-art STMs in the following ways: (1) unlike all other STMs it fits seamlessly with any systems memory life-cycle, including those using malloc/free (2) unlike all other lock-based STMs it efficiently avoids periods of unsafe execution, that is, using its novel version-clock validation, user code is guaranteed to operate only on consistent memory states, and (3) in a sequence of high performance benchmarks, while providing these new properties, it delivered overall performance comparable to (and in many cases better than) that of all former STM algorithms, both lock-based and non-blocking. Perhaps more importantly, on various benchmarks, TL2 delivers performance that is competitive with the best hand-crafted fine-grained concurrent structures. Specifically, it is ten-fold faster than a single lock. We believe these characteristics make TL2 a viable candidate for deployment of transactional memory today, long before hardware transactional support is available.

879 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202128
202063
201970
201888
2017115