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Transconductance

About: Transconductance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13593 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 209398 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Yi Cui1, Zhaohui Zhong1, Deli Wang1, Wayne U. Wang1, Charles M. Lieber1 
01 Jan 2003-Nano Letters
Abstract: Silicon nanowires can be prepared with single-crystal structures, diameters as small as several nanometers and controllable hole and electron doping, and thus represent powerful building blocks for nanoelectronics devices such as field effect transistors. To explore the potential limits of silicon nanowire transistors, we have examined the influence of source-drain contact thermal annealing and surface passivation on key transistor properties. Thermal annealing and passivation of oxide defects using chemical modification were found to increase the average transconductance from 45 to 800 nS and average mobility from 30 to 560 cm 2 /V‚s with peak values of 2000 nS and 1350 cm 2 /V‚s, respectively. The comparison of these results and other key parameters with state-of-the-art planar silicon devices shows substantial advantages for silicon nanowires. The uses of nanowires as building blocks for future nanoelectronics are discussed.

2,080 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jie Xiang1, Wei Lu1, Yongjie Hu1, Yue Wu1, Hao Yan1, Charles M. Lieber1 
25 May 2006-Nature
TL;DR: Comparison of the intrinsic switching delay, τ = CV/I, shows that the performance of Ge/Si NWFETs is comparable to similar length carbon nanotube FETs and substantially exceeds the length-dependent scaling of planar silicon MOSFets.
Abstract: Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on semi-conductor nanowires could one day replace standard silicon MOSFETs in miniature electronic circuits. MOSFETs, or metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors, are a type of transistor used for high-speed switching and in a computer's integrated circuits. A specially designed nanowire with a germanium shell and silicon core has shown promise as a nanometre-scale field-effect transistor: it has a near-perfect channel for electronic conduction. Now, in transistor configuration, this germanium/silicon nanowire is shown to have properties including high conductance and short switching time delay that are better than state-of-the-art silicon MOSFETs. In a transistor configuration, a new germanium/silicon nanowire has characteristics such as conductance, on-current and switching time delay that are better than those of state-of-the-art silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transitors. Semiconducting carbon nanotubes1,2 and nanowires3 are potential alternatives to planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs)4 owing, for example, to their unique electronic structure and reduced carrier scattering caused by one-dimensional quantum confinement effects1,5. Studies have demonstrated long carrier mean free paths at room temperature in both carbon nanotubes1,6 and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires7. In the case of carbon nanotube FETs, devices have been fabricated that work close to the ballistic limit8. Applications of high-performance carbon nanotube FETs have been hindered, however, by difficulties in producing uniform semiconducting nanotubes, a factor not limiting nanowires, which have been prepared with reproducible electronic properties in high yield as required for large-scale integrated systems3,9,10. Yet whether nanowire field-effect transistors (NWFETs) can indeed outperform their planar counterparts is still unclear4. Here we report studies on Ge/Si core/shell nanowire heterostructures configured as FETs using high-κ dielectrics in a top-gate geometry. The clean one-dimensional hole-gas in the Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures7 and enhanced gate coupling with high-κ dielectrics give high-performance FETs values of the scaled transconductance (3.3 mS µm-1) and on-current (2.1 mA µm-1) that are three to four times greater than state-of-the-art MOSFETs and are the highest obtained on NWFETs. Furthermore, comparison of the intrinsic switching delay, τ = CV/I, which represents a key metric for device applications4,11, shows that the performance of Ge/Si NWFETs is comparable to similar length carbon nanotube FETs and substantially exceeds the length-dependent scaling of planar silicon MOSFETs.

1,415 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2010-Nature
TL;DR: On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that the self-aligned graphene transistors have a high intrinsic cut-off (transit) frequency of fT = 100–300 GHz, with the extrinsic fT largely limited by parasitic pad capacitance.
Abstract: Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential new electronic material. With its high carrier mobility, graphene is of particular interest for ultrahigh-speed radio-frequency electronics. However, conventional device fabrication processes cannot readily be applied to produce high-speed graphene transistors because they often introduce significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattices and severely degrade the device performance. Here we report an approach to the fabrication of high-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate to prevent such degradation. A Co(2)Si-Al(2)O(3) core-shell nanowire is used as the gate, with the source and drain electrodes defined through a self-alignment process and the channel length defined by the nanowire diameter. The physical assembly of the nanowire gate preserves the high carrier mobility in graphene, and the self-alignment process ensures that the edges of the source, drain and gate electrodes are automatically and precisely positioned so that no overlapping or significant gaps exist between these electrodes, thus minimizing access resistance. It therefore allows for transistor performance not previously possible. Graphene transistors with a channel length as low as 140 nm have been fabricated with the highest scaled on-current (3.32 mA μm(-1)) and transconductance (1.27 mS μm(-1)) reported so far. Significantly, on-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that the self-aligned devices have a high intrinsic cut-off (transit) frequency of f(T) = 100-300 GHz, with the extrinsic f(T) (in the range of a few gigahertz) largely limited by parasitic pad capacitance. The reported intrinsic f(T) of the graphene transistors is comparable to that of the very best high-electron-mobility transistors with similar gate lengths.

1,154 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The first solid‐state field‐effect transistor has been fabricated utilizing a film of an organic macromolecule, polythiophene, as a semiconductor. The device characteristics have been optimized by controlling the doping levels of the polymer. The device is a normally off type and the source (drain) current can be modulated by a factor of 102–103 by varying the gate voltage. The carrier mobility and the transconductance have also been determined to be ∼10−5 cm2/V s and 3 nS, respectively, by means of electrical measurements.

1,054 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2002-Nature Materials
Abstract: The integration of materials having a high dielectric constant (high-kappa) into carbon-nanotube transistors promises to push the performance limit for molecular electronics. Here, high-kappa (approximately 25) zirconium oxide thin-films (approximately 8 nm) are formed on top of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic-layer deposition and used as gate dielectrics for nanotube field-effect transistors. The p-type transistors exhibit subthreshold swings of S approximately 70 mV per decade, approaching the room-temperature theoretical limit for field-effect transistors. Key transistor performance parameters, transconductance and carrier mobility reach 6,000 S x m(-1) (12 microS per tube) and 3,000 cm2 x V(-1) x s(-1) respectively. N-type field-effect transistors obtained by annealing the devices in hydrogen exhibit S approximately 90 mV per decade. High voltage gains of up to 60 are obtained for complementary nanotube-based inverters. The atomic-layer deposition process affords gate insulators with high capacitance while being chemically benign to nanotubes, a key to the integration of advanced dielectrics into molecular electronics.

1,023 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021496
2020476
2019507
2018477
2017516

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Denis Flandre

91 papers, 1.8K citations

Eddy Simoen

76 papers, 613 citations

Joao Antonio Martino

75 papers, 447 citations

Jaime Ramirez-Angulo

62 papers, 1.4K citations

Mridula Gupta

61 papers, 562 citations