About: Transconductance is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13593 publications have been published within this topic receiving 209398 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of source-drain contact thermal annealing and surface passivation on key transistor properties was examined, and it was shown that thermal annaling and passivation of oxide defects using chemical modification can increase the average transconductance from 45 to 800 nS and average mobility from 30 to 560 cm 2 /V
Abstract: Silicon nanowires can be prepared with single-crystal structures, diameters as small as several nanometers and controllable hole and electron doping, and thus represent powerful building blocks for nanoelectronics devices such as field effect transistors. To explore the potential limits of silicon nanowire transistors, we have examined the influence of source-drain contact thermal annealing and surface passivation on key transistor properties. Thermal annealing and passivation of oxide defects using chemical modification were found to increase the average transconductance from 45 to 800 nS and average mobility from 30 to 560 cm 2 /V‚s with peak values of 2000 nS and 1350 cm 2 /V‚s, respectively. The comparison of these results and other key parameters with state-of-the-art planar silicon devices shows substantial advantages for silicon nanowires. The uses of nanowires as building blocks for future nanoelectronics are discussed.
TL;DR: Comparison of the intrinsic switching delay, τ = CV/I, shows that the performance of Ge/Si NWFETs is comparable to similar length carbon nanotube FETs and substantially exceeds the length-dependent scaling of planar silicon MOSFets.
Abstract: Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on semi-conductor nanowires could one day replace standard silicon MOSFETs in miniature electronic circuits. MOSFETs, or metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors, are a type of transistor used for high-speed switching and in a computer's integrated circuits. A specially designed nanowire with a germanium shell and silicon core has shown promise as a nanometre-scale field-effect transistor: it has a near-perfect channel for electronic conduction. Now, in transistor configuration, this germanium/silicon nanowire is shown to have properties including high conductance and short switching time delay that are better than state-of-the-art silicon MOSFETs. In a transistor configuration, a new germanium/silicon nanowire has characteristics such as conductance, on-current and switching time delay that are better than those of state-of-the-art silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transitors. Semiconducting carbon nanotubes1,2 and nanowires3 are potential alternatives to planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs)4 owing, for example, to their unique electronic structure and reduced carrier scattering caused by one-dimensional quantum confinement effects1,5. Studies have demonstrated long carrier mean free paths at room temperature in both carbon nanotubes1,6 and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires7. In the case of carbon nanotube FETs, devices have been fabricated that work close to the ballistic limit8. Applications of high-performance carbon nanotube FETs have been hindered, however, by difficulties in producing uniform semiconducting nanotubes, a factor not limiting nanowires, which have been prepared with reproducible electronic properties in high yield as required for large-scale integrated systems3,9,10. Yet whether nanowire field-effect transistors (NWFETs) can indeed outperform their planar counterparts is still unclear4. Here we report studies on Ge/Si core/shell nanowire heterostructures configured as FETs using high-κ dielectrics in a top-gate geometry. The clean one-dimensional hole-gas in the Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures7 and enhanced gate coupling with high-κ dielectrics give high-performance FETs values of the scaled transconductance (3.3 mS µm-1) and on-current (2.1 mA µm-1) that are three to four times greater than state-of-the-art MOSFETs and are the highest obtained on NWFETs. Furthermore, comparison of the intrinsic switching delay, τ = CV/I, which represents a key metric for device applications4,11, shows that the performance of Ge/Si NWFETs is comparable to similar length carbon nanotube FETs and substantially exceeds the length-dependent scaling of planar silicon MOSFETs.
TL;DR: On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that the self-aligned graphene transistors have a high intrinsic cut-off (transit) frequency of fT = 100–300 GHz, with the extrinsic fT largely limited by parasitic pad capacitance.
Abstract: Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential new electronic material. With its high carrier mobility, graphene is of particular interest for ultrahigh-speed radio-frequency electronics. However, conventional device fabrication processes cannot readily be applied to produce high-speed graphene transistors because they often introduce significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattices and severely degrade the device performance. Here we report an approach to the fabrication of high-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate to prevent such degradation. A Co(2)Si-Al(2)O(3) core-shell nanowire is used as the gate, with the source and drain electrodes defined through a self-alignment process and the channel length defined by the nanowire diameter. The physical assembly of the nanowire gate preserves the high carrier mobility in graphene, and the self-alignment process ensures that the edges of the source, drain and gate electrodes are automatically and precisely positioned so that no overlapping or significant gaps exist between these electrodes, thus minimizing access resistance. It therefore allows for transistor performance not previously possible. Graphene transistors with a channel length as low as 140 nm have been fabricated with the highest scaled on-current (3.32 mA μm(-1)) and transconductance (1.27 mS μm(-1)) reported so far. Significantly, on-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that the self-aligned devices have a high intrinsic cut-off (transit) frequency of f(T) = 100-300 GHz, with the extrinsic f(T) (in the range of a few gigahertz) largely limited by parasitic pad capacitance. The reported intrinsic f(T) of the graphene transistors is comparable to that of the very best high-electron-mobility transistors with similar gate lengths.
TL;DR: In this paper, the first solid-state field-effect transistor has been fabricated utilizing a film of an organic macromolecule, polythiophene, as a semiconductor.
Abstract: The first solid‐state field‐effect transistor has been fabricated utilizing a film of an organic macromolecule, polythiophene, as a semiconductor. The device characteristics have been optimized by controlling the doping levels of the polymer. The device is a normally off type and the source (drain) current can be modulated by a factor of 102–103 by varying the gate voltage. The carrier mobility and the transconductance have also been determined to be ∼10−5 cm2/V s and 3 nS, respectively, by means of electrical measurements.
TL;DR: Graphene transistors operating at high frequencies (gigahertz) have been fabricated and their characteristics analyzed, indicating a FET-like behavior for graphene transistors.
Abstract: Top-gated graphene transistors operating at high frequencies (gigahertz) have been fabricated and their characteristics analyzed. The measured intrinsic current gain shows an ideal 1/f frequency dependence, indicating a FET-like behavior for graphene transistors. The cutoff frequency fT is found to be proportional to the dc transconductance gm of the device, consistent with the relation fT = gm/(2πCG). The peak fT increases with a reduced gate length, and fT as high as 26 GHz is measured for a graphene transistor with a gate length of 150 nm. The work represents a significant step toward the realization of graphene-based electronics for high-frequency applications.
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