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Transcription factor

About: Transcription factor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 82881 publications have been published within this topic receiving 5400448 citations. The topic is also known as: transcription factors.


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TL;DR: It is demonstrated in macrophages and B cells that collaborative interactions of the common factor PU.1 with small sets of macrophage- or B cell lineage-determining transcription factors establish cell-specific binding sites that are associated with the majority of promoter-distal H3K4me1-marked genomic regions.

9,620 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reprogramming of gene expression during EMT, as well as non-transcriptional changes, are initiated and controlled by signalling pathways that respond to extracellular cues, and the convergence of signalling pathways is essential for EMT.
Abstract: The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is integral in development, wound healing and stem cell behaviour, and contributes pathologically to fibrosis and cancer progression. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour is mediated by key transcription factors, including SNAIL, zinc-finger E-box-binding (ZEB) and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the functions of which are finely regulated at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. The reprogramming of gene expression during EMT, as well as non-transcriptional changes, are initiated and controlled by signalling pathways that respond to extracellular cues. Among these, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signalling has a predominant role; however, the convergence of signalling pathways is essential for EMT.

6,036 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The transcription factor NF-κB has attracted widespread attention among researchers in many fields based on its unusual and rapid regulation, the wide range of genes that it controls, its central role in immunological processes, the complexity of its subunits, and its apparent involvement in several diseases.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The transcription factor NF-κB has attracted widespread attention among researchers in many fields based on the following: its unusual and rapid regulation, the wide range of genes that it controls, its central role in immunological processes, the complexity of its subunits, and its apparent involvement in several diseases. A primary level of control for NF-κB is through interactions with an inhibitor protein called IκB. Recent evidence confirms the existence of multiple forms of IκB that appear to regulate NF-κB by distinct mechanisms. NF-κB can be activated by exposure of cells to LPS or inflammatory cytokines such as TNF or IL-1, viral infection or expression of certain viral gene products, UV irradiation, B or T cell activation, and by other physiological and nonphysiological stimuli. Activation of NF-κB to move into the nucleus is controlled by the targeted phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκB. Exciting new research has elaborated several important and unexpected findings that...

5,833 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jul 1997-Nature
TL;DR: The cloning and characterization of a human homologue of the Drosophila toll protein (Toll) is reported, which has been shown to induce the innate immune response in adult Dosophila.
Abstract: . Like Drosophila Toll, human Toll is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain consisting of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, and a cytoplasmic domain homologous to the cytoplasmic domain of the human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor. Both Drosophila Toll and the IL-1 receptor are known to signal through the NF-kB pathway 5-7 . We show that a constitutively active mutant of human Toll transfected into human cell lines can induce the activation of NF-kB and the expression of NF-kB-controlled genes for the inflammatory cyto- kines IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the expression of the co- stimulatory molecule B7.1, which is required for the activation of naive T cells. The Toll protein controls dorsal-ventral patterning in Drosophila embryos and activates the transcription factor Dorsal upon binding to its ligand Spatzle 8 . In adult Drosophila, the Toll/Dorsal signalling pathway participates in an anti-fungal immune response 2 . Signal- ling through Toll parallels the signalling pathway induced by the IL- 1 receptor (IL-1R) in mammalian cells: IL-1R signals through the NF-kB pathway, and Dorsal and its inhibitor Cactus are homo- logous to NF-kB and I-kB proteins, respectively 5,6 . Moreover, the cytoplasmic domain of Drosophila Toll is homologous to the cytoplasmic domain of IL-1R (ref. 9). Remarkably, the tobacco- virus-resistance gene that encodes N-protein is also similar to Toll in that it contains both a Toll signalling domain and an LRR domain 10 . It thus appears that the immune-response system mediated by Toll represents an ancient host defence mechanism 6 (Fig. 1). To inves- tigate the possibility that this pathway has been retained in the immune system of vertebrates, we used sequence and pattern searches 11 of the expressed-sequence tag (EST) database at the fragment was used to probe northern blots containing poly(A) + RNA from several organs. Most organs expressed two mRNA species: one of ,5 kilobases (kb) was predominant in most tissues except peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and corresponded to the length of the cDNA that we cloned. The lower band was ,4 kb long and this band was predominant in the PBL. The 4-kb band was not detectable in kidney, and liver did not contain any mRNA at all (Fig. 3). We also tested different mouse and human cell lines for expression of hToll mRNA by using PCR with reverse transcription (RT-PCR). We found mRNA for hToll in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, g/d T cells, Th1 and Th2 a/b T cells, a small intestinal epithelial cell line, and a B-cell line (data not shown). The hToll gene is expressed most strongly in spleen and PBL (Fig. 3); its expression in other tissues may be due to the presence of macrophages and dendritic cells, in which it could act as an early-warning system for infection. Alternatively, hToll may be widely expressed because hToll signals through the conserved NF-kB pathway (see below) and NF- kB is a ubiquitous transcription factor. To characterize hToll functions and see whether it can induce transcription of immune response genes like dToll, we generated a dominant-positive mutant of hToll because the natural ligand of hToll is unknown. To produce a constitutively active mutant of hToll, we made use of genetic information from dToll: analysis of ventra- lizing mutants in Drosophila embryos had identified the function of the ectodomain C-flanking cysteine-rich region in dToll 16 as control- ling the activity of dToll in signal transduction. In three dominant

5,625 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of genomic expression patterns in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae implicated the transcription factors Yap1p, as well as Msn2p and Msn4p, in mediating specific features of the transcriptional response, while the identification of novel sequence elements provided clues to novel regulators.
Abstract: We explored genomic expression patterns in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responding to diverse environmental transitions. DNA microarrays were used to measure changes in transcript levels over time for almost every yeast gene, as cells responded to temperature shocks, hydrogen peroxide, the superoxide-generating drug menadione, the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent diamide, the disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol, hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock, amino acid starvation, nitrogen source depletion, and progression into stationary phase. A large set of genes (approximately 900) showed a similar drastic response to almost all of these environmental changes. Additional features of the genomic responses were specialized for specific conditions. Promoter analysis and subsequent characterization of the responses of mutant strains implicated the transcription factors Yap1p, as well as Msn2p and Msn4p, in mediating specific features of the transcriptional response, while the identification of novel sequence elements provided clues to novel regulators. Physiological themes in the genomic responses to specific environmental stresses provided insights into the effects of those stresses on the cell.

4,836 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20234,678
20226,545
20213,663
20203,530
20193,362
20183,288