About: Transdermal is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12989 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 273826 citation(s). The topic is also known as: transdermal administration.
01 Nov 2008-Nature Biotechnology
Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin's barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase its impact on medicine.
Mark R. Prausnitz1•Institutions (1)
27 Mar 2004-Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Abstract: The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Recently, the use of micron-scale needles in increasing skin permeability has been proposed and shown to dramatically increase transdermal delivery, especially for macromolecules. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. Most drug delivery studies have emphasized solid microneedles, which have been shown to increase skin permeability to a broad range of molecules and nanoparticles in vitro. In vivo studies have demonstrated delivery of oligonucleotides, reduction of blood glucose level by insulin, and induction of immune responses from protein and DNA vaccines. For these studies, needle arrays have been used to pierce holes into skin to increase transport by diffusion or iontophoresis or as drug carriers that release drug into the skin from a microneedle surface coating. Hollow microneedles have also been developed and shown to microinject insulin to diabetic rats. To address practical applications of microneedles, the ratio of microneedle fracture force to skin insertion force (i.e. margin of safety) was found to be optimal for needles with small tip radius and large wall thickness. Microneedles inserted into the skin of human subjects were reported as painless. Together, these results suggest that microneedles represent a promising technology to deliver therapeutic compounds into the skin for a range of possible applications.
B.W. Barry1•Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2001-European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Abstract: Optimisation of drug delivery through human skin is important in modern therapy. This review considers drug-vehicle interactions (drug or prodrug selection, chemical potential control, ion pairs, coacervates and eutectic systems) and the role of vesicles and particles (liposomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, niosomes). We can modify the stratum corneum by hydration and chemical enhancers, or bypass or remove this tissue via microneedles, ablation and follicular delivery. Electrically assisted methods (ultrasound, iontophoresis, electroporation, magnetophoresis, photomechanical waves) show considerable promise. Of particular interest is the synergy between chemical enhancers, ultrasound, iontophoresis and electroporation.
01 Aug 1998-Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Abstract: Although modern biotechnology has produced extremely sophisticated and potent drugs, many of these compounds cannot be effectively delivered using current drug delivery techniques (e.g., pills and injections). Transdermal delivery is an attractive alternative, but it is limited by the extremely low permeability of skin. Because the primary barrier to transport is located in the upper 10-15 micron of skin and nerves are found only in deeper tissue, we used a reactive ion etching microfabrication technique to make arrays of microneedles long enough to cross the permeability barrier but not so long that they stimulate nerves, thereby potentially causing no pain. These microneedle arrays could be easily inserted into skin without breaking and were shown to increase permeability of human skin in vitro to a model drug, calcein, by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Limited tests on human subjects indicated that microneedles were reported as painless. This paper describes the first published study on the use of microfabricated microneedles to enhance drug delivery across skin.
06 Jun 1995-
Abstract: The invention is directed to a patch for the transdermal delivery of the racemic form or the active enantiomer of the analgesic ketorolac. The transdermal patch is capable of delivering therapeutically effective doses of the drug for a period of 12 hours or more. The patch is capable of delivering the racemate of ketorolac at a flux rate of 40 μg/cm 2 ·hr or more, and of the active enantiomer at a flux rate of 20 μg/cm 2 ·hr or more.