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Transformation optics

About: Transformation optics is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2687 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 102378 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2006-Science
TL;DR: This work shows how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and proposes a design strategy that has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.
Abstract: Using the freedom of design that metamaterials provide, we show how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and propose a design strategy. The conserved fields-electric displacement field D, magnetic induction field B, and Poynting vector B-are all displaced in a consistent manner. A simple illustration is given of the cloaking of a proscribed volume of space to exclude completely all electromagnetic fields. Our work has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.

7,201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2006-Science
TL;DR: This work describes here the first practical realization of a cloak of invisibility, constructed with the use of artificially structured metamaterials, designed for operation over a band of microwave frequencies.
Abstract: A recently published theory has suggested that a cloak of invisibility is in principle possible, at least over a narrow frequency band. We describe here the first practical realization of such a cloak; in our demonstration, a copper cylinder was "hidden" inside a cloak constructed according to the previous theoretical prescription. The cloak was constructed with the use of artificially structured metamaterials, designed for operation over a band of microwave frequencies. The cloak decreased scattering from the hidden object while at the same time reducing its shadow, so that the cloak and object combined began to resemble empty space.

6,229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2006-Science
TL;DR: A general recipe for the design of media that create perfect invisibility within the accuracy of geometrical optics is developed, which can be applied to escape detection by other electromagnetic waves or sound.
Abstract: An invisibility device should guide light around an object as if nothing were there, regardless of where the light comes from. Ideal invisibility devices are impossible, owing to the wave nature of light. This study develops a general recipe for the design of media that create perfect invisibility within the accuracy of geometrical optics. The imperfections of invisibility can be made arbitrarily small to hide objects that are much larger than the wavelength. With the use of modern metamaterials, practical demonstrations of such devices may be possible. The method developed here can also be applied to escape detection by other electromagnetic waves or sound.

3,680 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jun 2011-Science
TL;DR: By designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity patterns across a flake of graphene, one can have this material as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices.
Abstract: Metamaterials and transformation optics play substantial roles in various branches of optical science and engineering by providing schemes to tailor electromagnetic fields into desired spatial patterns. We report a theoretical study showing that by designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity patterns across a flake of graphene, one can have this material as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices. Varying the graphene chemical potential by using static electric field yields a way to tune the graphene conductivity in the terahertz and infrared frequencies. Such degree of freedom provides the prospect of having different "patches" with different conductivities on a single flake of graphene. Numerous photonic functions and metamaterial concepts can be expected to follow from such a platform.

2,222 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown here that a modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure.
Abstract: We discuss the validity of standard retrieval methods that assign bulk electromagnetic properties, such as the electric permittivity « and the magnetic permeability m, from calculations of the scattering sSd parameters for finite-thickness samples. S-parameter retrieval methods have recently become the principal means of characterizing artificially structured metamaterials, which, by nature, are inherently inhomogeneous. While the unit cell of a metamaterial can be made considerably smaller than the free space wavelength, there remains a significant variation of the phase across the unit cell at operational frequencies in nearly all metamaterial structures reported to date. In this respect, metamaterials do not rigorously satisfy an effective medium limit and are closer conceptually to photonic crystals. Nevertheless, we show here that a modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure. We thus distinguish a metamaterial regime, as opposed to the effective medium or photonic crystal regimes, in which a refractive index can be rigorously established but where the wave impedance can only be approximately defined. We present numerical simulations on typical metamaterial structures to illustrate the modified retrieval algorithm and the impact on the retrieved material parameters. We find that no changes to the standard retrieval procedures are necessary when the inhomogeneous unit cell is symmetric along the propagation axis; however, when the unit cell does not possess this symmetry, a modified procedure—in which a periodic structure is assumed—is required to obtain meaningful electromagnetic material parameters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617

2,177 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202147
202070
2019100
201890
2017148