Topic

# Transmission line

About: Transmission line is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 35386 publications have been published within this topic receiving 339619 citations.

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11 Nov 2005

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors define Metamaterials (MTMs) and Left-Handed (LH) MTMs as a class of two-dimensional MTMs.

Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgments. Acronyms. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Definition of Metamaterials (MTMs) and Left-Handed (LH) MTMs. 1.2 Theoretical Speculation by Viktor Veselago. 1.3 Experimental Demonstration of Left-Handedness. 1.4 Further Numerical and Experimental Confirmations. 1.5 "Conventional" Backward Waves and Novelty of LH MTMs. 1.6 Terminology. 1.7 Transmission Line (TL) Approach. 1.8 Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) MTMs. 1.9 MTMs and Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) Structures. 1.10 Historical "Germs" of MTMs. References. 2 Fundamentals of LH MTMs. 2.1 Left-Handedness from Maxwell's Equations. 2.2 Entropy Conditions in Dispersive Media. 2.3 Boundary Conditions. 2.4 Reversal of Doppler Effect. 2.5 Reversal of Vavilov- Cerenkov Radiation. 2.6 Reversal of Snell's Law: Negative Refraction. 2.7 Focusing by a "Flat LH Lens". 2.8 Fresnel Coefficients. 2.9 Reversal of Goos-H anchen Effect. 2.10 Reversal of Convergence and Divergence in Convex and Concave Lenses. 2.11 Subwavelength Diffraction. References. 3 TLTheoryofMTMs. 3.1 Ideal Homogeneous CRLH TLs. 3.1.1 Fundamental TL Characteristics. 3.1.2 Equivalent MTM Constitutive Parameters. 3.1.3 Balanced and Unbalanced Resonances. 3.1.4 Lossy Case. 3.2 LC Network Implementation. 3.2.1 Principle. 3.2.2 Difference with Conventional Filters. 3.2.3 Transmission Matrix Analysis. 3.2.4 Input Impedance. 3.2.5 Cutoff Frequencies. 3.2.6 Analytical Dispersion Relation. 3.2.7 Bloch Impedance. 3.2.8 Effect of Finite Size in the Presence of Imperfect Matching. 3.3 Real Distributed 1D CRLH Structures. 3.3.1 General Design Guidelines. 3.3.2 Microstrip Implementation. 3.3.3 Parameters Extraction. 3.4 Experimental Transmission Characteristics. 3.5 Conversion from Transmission Line to Constitutive Parameters. References. 4 Two-Dimensional MTMs. 4.1 Eigenvalue Problem. 4.1.1 General Matrix System. 4.1.2 CRLH Particularization. 4.1.3 Lattice Choice, Symmetry Points, Brillouin Zone, and 2D Dispersion Representations. 4.2 Driven Problem by the Transmission Matrix Method (TMM). 4.2.1 Principle of the TMM. 4.2.2 Scattering Parameters. 4.2.3 Voltage and Current Distributions. 4.2.4 Interest and Limitations of the TMM. 4.3 Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Modeling Method. 4.3.1 TLM Modeling of the Unloaded TL Host Network. 4.3.2 TLM Modeling of the Loaded TL Host Network (CRLH). 4.3.3 Relationship between Material Properties and the TLM Model Parameters. 4.3.4 Suitability of the TLM Approach for MTMs. 4.4 Negative Refractive Index (NRI) Effects. 4.4.1 Negative Phase Velocity. 4.4.2 Negative Refraction. 4.4.3 Negative Focusing. 4.4.4 RH-LH Interface Surface Plasmons. 4.4.5 Reflectors with Unusual Properties. 4.5 Distributed 2D Structures. 4.5.1 Description of Possible Structures. 4.5.2 Dispersion and Propagation Characteristics. 4.5.3 Parameter Extraction. 4.5.4 Distributed Implementation of the NRI Slab. References. 5 Guided-Wave Applications. 5.1 Dual-Band Components. 5.1.1 Dual-Band Property of CRLH TLs. 5.1.2 Quarter-Wavelength TL and Stubs. 5.1.3 Passive Component Examples: Quadrature Hybrid and Wilkinson Power Divider. 5.1.3.1 Quadrature Hybrid. 5.1.3.2 Wilkinson Power Divider. 5.1.4 Nonlinear Component Example: Quadrature Subharmonically Pumped Mixer. 5.2 Enhanced-Bandwidth Components. 5.2.1 Principle of Bandwidth Enhancement. 5.2.2 Rat-Race Coupler Example. 5.3 Super-compact Multilayer "Vertical" TL. 5.3.1 "Vertical" TL Architecture. 5.3.2 TL Performances. 5.3.3 Diplexer Example. 5.4 Tight Edge-Coupled Coupled-Line Couplers (CLCs). 5.4.1 Generalities on Coupled-Line Couplers. 5.4.1.1 TEM and Quasi-TEM Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures with Small Interspacing: Impedance Coupling (IC). 5.4.1.2 Non-TEM Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures with Relatively Large Spacing: Phase Coupling (PC). 5.4.1.3 Summary on Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures. 5.4.1.4 Asymmetric Coupled-Line Structures. 5.4.1.5 Advantages of MTM Couplers. 5.4.2 Symmetric Impedance Coupler. 5.4.3 Asymmetric Phase Coupler. 5.5 Negative and Zeroth-Order Resonator. 5.5.1 Principle. 5.5.2 LC Network Implementation. 5.5.3 Zeroth-Order Resonator Characteristics. 5.5.4 Circuit Theory Verification. 5.5.5 Microstrip Realization. References. 6 Radiated-Wave Applications. 6.1 Fundamental Aspects of Leaky-Wave Structures. 6.1.1 Principle of Leakage Radiation. 6.1.2 Uniform and Periodic Leaky-Wave Structures. 6.1.2.1 Uniform LW Structures. 6.1.2.2 Periodic LW Structures. 6.1.3 Metamaterial Leaky-Wave Structures. 6.2 Backfire-to-Endfire (BE) Leaky-Wave (LW) Antenna. 6.3 Electronically Scanned BE LW Antenna. 6.3.1 Electronic Scanning Principle. 6.3.2 Electronic Beamwidth Control Principle. 6.3.3 Analysis of the Structure and Results. 6.4 Reflecto-Directive Systems. 6.4.1 Passive Retro-Directive Reflector. 6.4.2 Arbitrary-Angle Frequency Tuned Reflector. 6.4.3 Arbitrary-Angle Electronically Tuned Reflector. 6.5 Two-Dimensional Structures. 6.5.1 Two-Dimensional LW Radiation. 6.5.2 Conical-Beam Antenna. 6.5.3 Full-Space Scanning Antenna. 6.6 Zeroth Order Resonating Antenna. 6.7 Dual-Band CRLH-TL Resonating Ring Antenna. 6.8 Focusing Radiative "Meta-Interfaces". 6.8.1 Heterodyne Phased Array. 6.8.2 Nonuniform Leaky-Wave Radiator. References. 7 The Future of MTMs. 7.1 "Real-Artificial" Materials: the Challenge of Homogenization. 7.2 Quasi-Optical NRI Lenses and Devices. 7.3 Three-Dimensional Isotropic LH MTMs. 7.4 Optical MTMs. 7.5 "Magnetless" Magnetic MTMs. 7.6 Terahertz Magnetic MTMs. 7.7 Surface Plasmonic MTMs. 7.8 Antenna Radomes and Frequency Selective Surfaces. 7.9 Nonlinear MTMs. 7.10 Active MTMs. 7.11 Other Topics of Interest. References. Index.

2,750 citations

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01 Jan 1994

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a model for estimating the Impedance of Transmission Lines and the Capacitance of Transformer Lines in the presence of Symmetrical Faults.

Abstract: 1 Basic Concepts 2 Transformers 3 The Synchronous Machine 4 Series Impedance of Transmission Lines 5 Capacitance of Transmission Lines 6 Current and Voltage Relations on a Transmission Line 7 The Admittance Model and Network Calculations 8 The Impedance Model and Network Calculations 9 Power Flow Solutions 10 Symmetrical Faults 11 Symmetrical Components and Sequence Networks 12 Unsymmetrical Faults 13 Economic Operation of Power Systems 14 Zbus Methods in Contingency Analysis 15 State Estimation of Power Systems 16 Power System Stability

2,157 citations

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01 Jan 1974TL;DR: In this article, a system is employed that automatically measures the complex reflection and transmission coefficients that result when a sample of material is inserted in waveguide or a TEM transmission line.

Abstract: With the advent of the computer and automatic test equipment, new techniques for measuring complex dielectric constant (e) and permeability (µ) can be considered. Such a technique is described where a system is employed that automatically measures the complex reflection and transmission coefficients that result when a sample of material is inserted in waveguide or a TEM transmission line. Measurement results of e and µ for two common materials are presented.

2,002 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new approach for the development of planar metamaterial structures is developed, and analytical equivalent circuit models are proposed for isolated and coupled split-ring resonators/CSRRs coupled to planar transmission lines.

Abstract: In this paper, a new approach for the development of planar metamaterial structures is developed. For this purpose, split-ring resonators (SRRs) and complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) coupled to planar transmission lines are investigated. The electromagnetic behavior of these elements, as well as their coupling to the host transmission line, are studied, and analytical equivalent-circuit models are proposed for the isolated and coupled SRRs/CSRRs. From these models, the stopband/passband characteristics of the analyzed SRR/CSRR loaded transmission lines are derived. It is shown that, in the long wavelength limit, these stopbands/passbands can be interpreted as due to the presence of negative/positive values for the effective /spl epsiv/ and /spl mu/ of the line. The proposed analysis is of interest in the design of compact microwave devices based on the metamaterial concept.

1,405 citations

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24 May 1988TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline a methodology for the computation of the response of a multiconductor transmission line terminated by linear networks, where the lines are embedded in a multilayered lossy dielectric media and have arbitrary cross sections, but uniform along the length.

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to outline a methodology for the computation of the response of a multiconductor transmission line terminated by linear networks. The lines are embedded in a multilayered lossy dielectric media and have arbitrary cross sections, but uniform along the length. To check the accuracy of the theoretical results, extensive experimental verification has been carried out.

1,307 citations