Topic

# Transmit diversity

About: Transmit diversity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3428 publications have been published within this topic receiving 79019 citations.

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AT&T

^{1}TL;DR: This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme that provides the same diversity order as maximal-ratio receiver combining (MRRC) with one transmit antenna, and two receive antennas.

Abstract: This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme. Using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna the scheme provides the same diversity order as maximal-ratio receiver combining (MRRC) with one transmit antenna, and two receive antennas. It is also shown that the scheme may easily be generalized to two transmit antennas and M receive antennas to provide a diversity order of 2M. The new scheme does not require any bandwidth expansion or any feedback from the receiver to the transmitter and its computation complexity is similar to MRRC.

13,706 citations

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AT&T

^{1}TL;DR: A generalization of orthogonal designs is shown to provide space-time block codes for both real and complex constellations for any number of transmit antennas and it is shown that many of the codes presented here are optimal in this sense.

Abstract: We introduce space-time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space-time block code and the encoded data is split into n streams which are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximum-likelihood decoding is achieved in a simple way through decoupling of the signals transmitted from different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space-time block code and gives a maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. Space-time block codes are designed to achieve the maximum diversity order for a given number of transmit and receive antennas subject to the constraint of having a simple decoding algorithm. The classical mathematical framework of orthogonal designs is applied to construct space-time block codes. It is shown that space-time block codes constructed in this way only exist for few sporadic values of n. Subsequently, a generalization of orthogonal designs is shown to provide space-time block codes for both real and complex constellations for any number of transmit antennas. These codes achieve the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas using any arbitrary real constellation such as PAM. For an arbitrary complex constellation such as PSK and QAM, space-time block codes are designed that achieve 1/2 of the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas. For the specific cases of two, three, and four transmit antennas, space-time block codes are designed that achieve, respectively, all, 3/4, and 3/4 of maximum possible transmission rate using arbitrary complex constellations. The best tradeoff between the decoding delay and the number of transmit antennas is also computed and it is shown that many of the codes presented here are optimal in this sense as well.

7,348 citations

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Nortel

^{1}TL;DR: An overview of the developments in cooperative communication, a new class of methods called cooperative communication has been proposed that enables single-antenna mobiles in a multi-user environment to share their antennas and generate a virtual multiple-antenn transmitter that allows them to achieve transmit diversity.

Abstract: Transmit diversity generally requires more than one antenna at the transmitter. However, many wireless devices are limited by size or hardware complexity to one antenna. Recently, a new class of methods called cooperative communication has been proposed that enables single-antenna mobiles in a multi-user environment to share their antennas and generate a virtual multiple-antenna transmitter that allows them to achieve transmit diversity. This article presents an overview of the developments in this burgeoning field.

3,130 citations

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Alcatel-Lucent

^{1}TL;DR: Joint power control and beamforming schemes are proposed for cellular systems where adaptive arrays are used only at base stations and the performances of these algorithms are compared with previously proposed algorithms through numerical studies.

Abstract: Joint power control and beamforming schemes are proposed for cellular systems where adaptive arrays are used only at base stations. In the uplink, mobile power and receiver diversity combining vectors at the base stations are calculated jointly. The mobile transmitted power is minimized, while the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at each link is maintained above a threshold. A transmit diversity scheme for the downlink is also proposed where the transmit weight vectors and downlink power allocations are jointly calculated such that the SINR at each mobile is above a target value. The proposed algorithm achieves a feasible solution for the downlink if there is one and minimizes the total transmitted power in the network. In a reciprocal network it can be implemented in a decentralized system, and it does not require global channel response measurements. In a nonreciprocal network, where the uplink and downlink channel responses are different, the proposed transmit beamforming algorithm needs to be implemented in a centralized system, and it requires a knowledge of the downlink channel responses. The performances of these algorithms are compared with previously proposed algorithms through numerical studies.

985 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that good beamformers are good packings of two-dimensional subspaces in a 2t-dimensional real Grassmannian manifold with chordal distance as the metric.

Abstract: We study a multiple-antenna system where the transmitter is equipped with quantized information about instantaneous channel realizations. Assuming that the transmitter uses the quantized information for beamforming, we derive a universal lower bound on the outage probability for any finite set of beamformers. The universal lower bound provides a concise characterization of the gain with each additional bit of feedback information regarding the channel. Using the bound, it is shown that finite information systems approach the perfect information case as (t-1)2/sup -B/t-1/, where B is the number of feedback bits and t is the number of transmit antennas. The geometrical bounding technique, used in the proof of the lower bound, also leads to a design criterion for good beamformers, whose outage performance approaches the lower bound. The design criterion minimizes the maximum inner product between any two beamforming vectors in the beamformer codebook, and is equivalent to the problem of designing unitary space-time codes under certain conditions. Finally, we show that good beamformers are good packings of two-dimensional subspaces in a 2t-dimensional real Grassmannian manifold with chordal distance as the metric.

981 citations