Topic

# Transmittance

About: Transmittance is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21870 publications have been published within this topic receiving 279343 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported, including a comprehensive theoretical analysis.

Abstract: A sensitive single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported. The authors describe the experimental details and present a comprehensive theoretical analysis including cases where nonlinear refraction is accompanied by nonlinear absorption. In these experiments, the transmittance of a sample is measured through a finite aperture in the far field as the sample is moved along the propagation path (z) of a focused Gaussian beam. The sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refraction are easily deduced from such a transmittance curve (Z-scan). Employing this technique, a sensitivity of better than lambda /300 wavefront distortion is achieved in n/sub 2/ measurements of BaF/sub 2/ using picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulses. >

7,717 citations

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TL;DR: Characteristics of the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes indicate broad applicability of the films for electrical coupling in photonic devices.

Abstract: We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films to various substrates. For equivalent sheet resistance, the films exhibit optical transmittance comparable to that of commercial indium tin oxide in the visible spectrum, but far superior transmittance in the technologically relevant 2- to 5-micrometer infrared spectral band. These characteristics indicate broad applicability of the films for electrical coupling in photonic devices. In an example application, the films are used to construct an electric field-activated optical modulator, which constitutes an optical analog to the nanotube-based field effect transistor.

2,958 citations

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TL;DR: A simple yet highly sensitive single-beam experimental technique for the determination of both the sign and magnitude of n(2), where the sample is moved along the z direction of a focused Gaussian beam while the repetitively pulsed laser energy is held fixed.

Abstract: We present a simple yet highly sensitive single-beam experimental technique for the determination of both the sign and magnitude of n2. The sample is moved along the z direction of a focused Gaussian beam while the repetitively pulsed laser energy is held fixed. The resultant plot of transmittance through an aperture in the far field yields a dispersion-shaped curve from which n2 is easily calculated. A transmittance change of 1% corresponds to a phase distortion of ≃ λ/250. We demonstrate this method on several materials using both CO2 and Nd:YAG laser pulses.

2,254 citations

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TL;DR: A simple model is developed, based on the diffusion approximation to radiative transfer theory, which yields analytic expressions for the pulse shape in terms of the interaction coefficients of a homogeneous slab.

Abstract: When a picosecond light pulse is incident on biological tissue, the temporal characteristics of the light backscattered from, or transmitted through, the sample carry information about the optical absorption and scattering coefficients of the tissue. We develop a simple model, based on the diffusion approximation to radiative transfer theory, which yields analytic expressions for the pulse shape in terms of the interaction coefficients of a homogeneous slab. The model predictions are in good agreement with the results of preliminary in vivo experiments and Monte Carlo simulations.

2,242 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e−beam evaporation of In2 O3 with up to 9 mol'% SnO2 onto heated glass.

Abstract: We review work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e‐beam evaporation of In2O3 with up to 9 mol % SnO2 onto heated glass. These films have excellent spectrally selective properties when the deposition rate is ∼0.2 nm/s, the substrate temperature is ≳150 °C, and the oxygen pressure is ∼5×10−4 Torr. Optimized coatings have crystallite dimensions ≳50 nm and a C‐type rare‐earth oxide structure. We cover electromagnetic properties as recorded by spectrophotometry in the 0.2–50‐μm range, by X‐band microwave reflectance, and by dc electrical measurements. Hall‐effect data are included. An increase of the Sn content is shown to have several important effects: the semiconductor band gap is shifted towards the ultraviolet, the luminous transmittance remains high, the infrared reflectance increases to a high value beyond a certain wavelength which shifts towards the visible, phonon‐induced infrared absorption bands vanish, the microwave reflectance goes up, and the dc resisitivity drops to ∼2×10−4 Ω cm. The corre...

2,124 citations