Topic

# Transverse isotropy

About: Transverse isotropy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6396 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 134947 citation(s).

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Abstract: Most bulk elastic media are weakly anisotropic. -The equations governing weak anisotropy are much simpler than those governing strong anisotropy, and they are much easier to grasp intuitively. These equations indicate that a certain anisotropic parameter (denoted 6) controls most anisotropic phenomena of importance in exploration geophysics. some of which are nonnegligible even when the anisotropy is weak. The critical parameter 6 is an awkward combination of elastic parameters, a combination which is totally independent of horizontal velocity and which may be either positive or negative in natural contexts.

3,507 citations

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Abstract: S olutions are presented for the effective shear modulus of two types of composite material models. The first type is that of a macroscopically isotropic composite medium containing spherical inclusions. The corresponding model employed is that involving three phases: the spherical inclusion, a spherical annulus of matrix material and an outer region of equivalent homogeneous material of unlimited extent. The corresponding two-dimensional, polar model is used to represent a transversely isotropic, fiber reinforced medium. In the latter case only the transverse effective shear modulus is obtained. The relative volumes of the inclusion phase to the matrix annulus phase in the three phase models are taken to be the given volume fractions of the inclusion phases in the composite materials at large. The results are found to differ from those of the well-known Kerner and Hermans formulae for the same models. The latter works are now understood to violate a continuity condition at the matrix to equivalent homogeneous medium interface. The present results are compared extensively with results from other related models. Conditions of linear elasticity are assumed.

1,859 citations

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01 Jan 1980-

Abstract: Preface. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Definition. 1.2 Characteristics. 1.3 Classification. 1.4 Particulate Composites. 1.5 Fiber-Reinforced Composites. 1.6 Applications of Fiber Composites. Exercise Problems. References. 2 Fibers, Matrices, and Fabrication of Composites. 2.1 Advanced Fibers. 2.1.1 Glass Fibers. 2.1.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers. 2.1.3 Aramid Fibers. 2.1.4 Boron Fibers. 2.1.5 Other Fibers. 2.2 Matrix Materials. 2.2.1 Polymers. 2.2.2 Metals. 2.3 Fabrication of Composites. 2.3.1 Fabrication of Thermosetting Resin Matrix Composites. 2.3.2 Fabrication of Thermoplastic-Resin Matrix Composites (Short-Fiber Composites). 2.3.3 Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites. 2.3.4 Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composites. Suggested Reading. 3 Behavior of Unidirectional Composites. 3.1 Introduction. 3.1.1 Nomenclature. 3.1.2 Volume and Weight Fractions. 3.2 Longitudinal Behavior of Unidirectional Composites. 3.2.1 Initial Stiffness. 3.2.2 Load Sharing. 3.2.3 Behavior beyond Initial Deformation. 3.2.4 Failure Mechanism and Strength. 3.2.5 Factors Influencing Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness. 3.3 Transverse Stiffness and Strength. 3.3.1 Constant-Stress Model. 3.3.2 Elasticity Methods of Stiffness Prediction. 3.3.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for Transverse Modulus. 3.3.4 Transverse Strength. 3.4 Prediction of Shear Modulus. 3.5 Prediction of Poisson's Ratio. 3.6 Failure Modes. 3.6.1 Failure under Longitudinal Tensile Loads. 3.6.2 Failure under Longitudinal Compressive Loads. 3.6.3 Failure under Transverse Tensile Loads. 3.6.4 Failure under Transverse Compressive Loads. 3.6.5 Failure under In-Plane Shear Loads. 3.7 Expansion Coefficients and Transport Properties. 3.7.1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients. 3.7.2 Moisture Expansion Coefficients. 3.7.3 Transport Properties. 3.7.4 Mass Diffusion. 3.8 Typical Unidirectional Fiber Composite Properties. Exercise Problems. References. 4 Short-Fiber Composites. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Theories of Stress Transfer. 4.2.1 Approximate Analysis of Stress Transfer. 4.2.2 Stress Distributions from Finite-Element Analysis. 4.2.3 Average Fiber Stress. 4.3 Modulus and Strength of Short-Fiber Composites. 4.3.1 Prediction of Modulus. 4.3.2 Prediction of Strength. 4.3.3 Effect of Matrix Ductility. 4.4 Ribbon-Reinforced Composites. Exercise Problems. References. 5 Analysis of an Orthotropic Lamina. 5.1 Introduction. 5.1.1 Orthotropic Materials. 5.2 Stress-Strain Relations and Engineering Constants. 5.2.1 Stress-Strain Relations for Specially Orthotropic Lamina. 5.2.2 Stress-Strain Relations for Generally Orthotropic Lamina. 5.2.3 Transformation of Engineering Constants. 5.3 Hooke's Law and Stiffness and Compliance Matrices. 5.3.1 General Anisotropic Material. 5.3.2 Specially Orthotropic Material. 5.3.3 Transversely Isotropic Material. 5.3.4 Isotropic Material. 5.3.5 Specially Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress. 5.3.6 Compliance Tensor and Compliance Matrix. 5.3.7 Relations between Engineering Constants and Elements of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices. 5.3.8 Restrictions on Elastic Constants. 5.3.9 Transformation of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices. 5.3.10 Invariant Forms of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices. 5.4 Strengths of an Orthotropic Lamina. 5.4.1 Maximum-Stress Theory. 5.4.2 Maximum-Strain Theory. 5.4.3 Maximum-Work Theory. 5.4.4 Importance of Sign of Shear Stress on Strength of Composites. Exercise Problems. References. 6 Analysis of Laminated Composites. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Laminate Strains. 6.3 Variation of Stresses in a Laminate. 6.4 Resultant Forces and Moments: Synthesis of Stiffness Matrix. 6.5 Laminate Description System. 6.6 Construction and Properties of Special Laminates. 6.6.1 Symmetric Laminates. 6.6.2 Unidirectional, Cross-Ply, and Angle-Ply Laminates. 6.6.3 Quasi-isotropic Laminates. 6.7 Determination of Laminae Stresses and Strains. 6.8 Analysis of Laminates after Initial Failure. 6.9 Hygrothermal Stresses in Laminates. 6.9.1 Concepts of Thermal Stresses. 6.9.2 Hygrothermal Stress Calculations. 6.10 Laminate Analysis Through Computers. Exercise Problems. References. 7 Analysis of Laminated Plates and Beams. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Governing Equations for Plates. 7.2.1 Equilibrium Equations. 7.2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Displacements. 7.3 Application of Plate Theory. 7.3.1 Bending. 7.3.2 Buckling. 7.3.3 Free Vibrations. 7.4 Deformations Due to Transverse Shear. 7.4.1 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory. 7.4.2 Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory. 7.5 Analysis of Laminated Beams. 7.5.1 Governing Equations for Laminated Beams. 7.5.2 Application of Beam Theory. Exercise Problems. References. 8 Advanced Topics in Fiber Composites. 8.1 Interlaminar Stresses and Free-Edge Effects. 8.1.1 Concepts of Interlaminar Stresses. 8.1.2 Determination of Interlaminar Stresses. 8.1.3 Effect of Stacking Sequence on Interlaminar Stresses. 8.1.4 Approximate Solutions for Interlaminar Stresses. 8.1.5 Summary. 8.2 Fracture Mechanics of Fiber Composites. 8.2.1 Introduction. 8.2.2 Fracture Mechanics Concepts and Measures of Fracture Toughness. 8.2.3 Fracture Toughness of Composite Laminates. 8.2.4 Whitney-Nuismer Failure Criteria for Notched Composites. 8.3 Joints for Composite Structures. 8.3.1 Adhesively Bonded Joints. 8.3.2 Mechanically Fastened Joints. 8.3.3 Bonded-Fastened Joints. Exercise Problems. References. 9 Performance of Fiber Composites: Fatigue, Impact, and Environmental Effects. 9.1 Fatigue. 9.1.1 Introduction. 9.1.2 Fatigue Damage. 9.1.3 Factors Influencing Fatigue Behavior of Composites. 9.1.4 Empirical Relations for Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life. 9.1.5 Fatigue of High-Modulus Fiber-Reinforced Composites. 9.1.6 Fatigue of Short-Fiber Composites. 9.2 Impact. 9.2.1 Introduction and Fracture Process. 9.2.2 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms and Failure Models. 9.2.3 Effect of Materials and Testing Variables on Impact Properties. 9.2.4 Hybrid Composites and Their Impact Strength. 9.2.5 Damage Due to Low-Velocity Impact. 9.3 Environmental-Interaction Effects. 9.3.1 Fiber Strength. 9.3.2 Matrix Effects. Exercise Problems. References. 10 Experimental Characterization of Composites. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Measurement of Physical Properties. 10.2.1 Density. 10.2.2 Constituent Weight and Volume Fractions. 10.2.3 Void Volume Fraction. 10.2.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients. 10.2.5 Moisture Absorption and Diffusivity. 10.2.6 Moisture Expansion Coefficients. 10.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties. 10.3.1 Properties in Tension. 10.3.2 Properties in Compression. 10.3.3 In-Place Shear Properties. 10.3.4 Flexural Properties. 10.3.5 Measures of In-Plane Fracture Toughness. 10.3.6 Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Toughness. 10.3.7 Impact Properties. 10.4 Damage Identification Using Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques. 10.4.1 Ultrasonics. 10.4.2 Acoustic Emission. 10.4.3 x-Radiography. 10.4.4 Thermography. 10.4.5 Laser Shearography. 10.5 General Remarks on Characterization. Exercise Problems. References. 11 Emerging Composite Materials. 11.1 Nanocomposites. 11.2 Carbon-Carbon Composites. 11.3 Biocomposites. 11.3.1 Biofibers. 11.3.2 Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs). 11.3.3 Biopolymers. 11.4 Composites in "Smart" Structures. Suggested Reading. Appendix 1: Matrices and Tensors. Appendix 2: Equations of Theory of Elasticity. Appendix 3: Laminate Orientation Code. Appendix 4: Properties of Fiber Composites. Appendix 5: Computer Programs for Laminate Analysis. Index.

1,854 citations

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Abstract: The author's previous theory of elasticity and consolidation for isotropic materials [J. Appl. Phys. 12, 155–164 (1941)] is extended to the general case of anisotropy. The method of derivation is also different and more direct. The particular cases of transverse isotropy and complete isotropy are discussed.

1,697 citations

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Abstract: A horizontally layered inhomogeneous medium, isotropic or transversely isotropic, is considered, whose properties are constant or nearly so when averaged over some vertical height l′. For waves longer than l′ the medium is shown to behave like a homogeneous, or nearly homogeneous, transversely isotropic medium whose density is the average density and whose elastic coefficients are algebraic combinations of averages of algebraic combinations of the elastic coefficients of the original medium. The nearly homogeneous medium is said to be ‘long-wave equivalent’ to the original medium. Conditions on the five elastic coefficients of a homogeneous transversely isotropic medium are derived which are necessary and sufficient for the medium to be ‘long-wave equivalent’ to a horizontally layered isotropic medium. Further conditions are also derived which are necessary and sufficient for the homogeneous medium to be ‘long-wave equivalent’ to a horizontally layered isotropic medium consisting of only two different homogeneous isotropic materials. Except in singular cases, if the latter two-layered medium exists at all, its proportions and elastic coefficients are uniquely determined by the elastic coefficients of the homogeneous transversely isotropic medium. The observed variations in crustal P-wave velocity with depth, obtained from well logs, are shown to be large enough to explain some of the observed crustal anisotropies as due to layering of isotropic material.

1,459 citations