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Treaty

About: Treaty is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23460 publications have been published within this topic receiving 246600 citations. The topic is also known as: exchange of letters & protocol.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a theory of ratification in the context of domestic political games and international political games, which is applicable to many other political phenomena, such as dependency, legislative committees, and multiparty coalitions.
Abstract: Domestic politics and international relations are often inextricably entangled, but existing theories (particularly “state-centric” theories) do not adequately account for these linkages. When national leaders must win ratification (formal or informal) from their constituents for an international agreement, their negotiating behavior reflects the simultaneous imperatives of both a domestic political game and an international game. Using illustrations from Western economic summitry, the Panama Canal and Versailles Treaty negotiations, IMF stabilization programs, the European Community, and many other diplomatic contexts, this article offers a theory of ratification. It addresses the role of domestic preferences and coalitions, domestic political institutions and practices, the strategies and tactics of negotiators, uncertainty, the domestic reverberation of international pressures, and the interests of the chief negotiator. This theory of “two-level games” may also be applicable to many other political phenomena, such as dependency, legislative committees, and multiparty coalitions.

6,155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Jul 2003-BMJ
TL;DR: By making use of scientific evidence on the effects of tobacco, the member states of WHO have negotiated their first global health treaty and could act as a possible model for tackling other health issues.
Abstract: Many health problems require international action, but getting governments to agree on strategies for prevention or treatment is difficult. By making use of scientific evidence on the effects of tobacco, the member states of WHO have negotiated their first global health treaty. If the treaty can be implemented effectively, it could act as a possible model for tackling other health issues When Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland became director general of the World Health Organization in 1998, she clearly stated that the tobacco epidemic should be tackled by an international collective action and that WHO should take a leadership role.1 In 1999, WHO started work on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was endorsed by member states on 21 May 2003. It is the first time WHO has used its constitutional authority in global public health to develop a legal instrument aimed at improving population health. The initiation and negotiation of the framework convention was based strongly on the accumulation of scientific evidence.2 We review the development and scientific basis of the convention and discuss its implications and the potential of international collective action against threats to global public health. The structural basis for framework conventions is to use an incremental process in making law. It begins with a framework convention that establishes a general consensus on the relevant facts and the system of governance for an issue. This is followed by the development of more specific commitments and institutional arrangements in subsequent protocols.3 However, depending on the political will, framework conventions can also include quite specific provisions. In the case of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the powerful political momentum behind the treaty has ensured that several detailed provisions have been incorporated into the final text.4 The framework convention is the first …

1,262 citations

Book
31 Dec 1990
TL;DR: In this article, the accomplished historian Jamil Hasanli has produced a comprehensive and meticulously documented account of this little-known period, drawing on contemporary records, memoirs, and scholarship in many languages.
Abstract: As revolution swept over Russia and empires collapsed in the final days of World War I, Azerbaijan and neighbouring Georgia and Armenia proclaimed their independence in May 1918. During the ensuing two years of civil war, military endgames, and treaty negotiations, the diplomatic representatives of Azerbaijan struggled to gain international recognition and favourable resolution of territorial disputes. This brief but eventful episode came to an end when the Red Army entered Baku in late April 1920. Drawing on contemporary records, memoirs, and scholarship in many languages, the accomplished historian Jamil Hasanli has produced a comprehensive and meticulously documented account of this little-known period

1,007 citations

Posted Content
Oona A. Hathaway1
TL;DR: In this paper, a large-scale quantitative analysis of the relationship between human rights treaties and countries' human rights practices is presented, based on a database encompassing 166 nations over a nearly forty-year period in five areas of human rights law.
Abstract: Do countries comply with the requirements of human rights treaties that they join? Are these treaties effective in changing states' behavior for the better? This Article addresses these questions through a large-scale quantitative analysis of the relationship between human rights treaties and countries' human rights practices. The analysis relies on a database encompassing 166 nations over a nearly forty-year period in five areas of human rights law. The analysis finds that although the practices of countries that have ratified human rights treaties are generally better than those of countries that have not, noncompliance with treaty obligations appears common. More paradoxically, controlling for other factors that affect practices, it appears that treaty ratification is not infrequently associated with worse practices than otherwise expected. These findings can be explained in part, the Article contends, by the dual nature of treaties as both instrumental and expressive instruments. Treaties not only create binding law, but also declare or express the position of countries that ratify them. Because human rights treaties tend to be weakly monitored and enforced, countries that ratify may enjoy the benefits of this expression-including, perhaps, reduced pressure for improvements in practices-without bearing significant costs. This does not mean that human rights treaties do not have any positive influence, but simply that these positive effects may sometimes be offset or even outweighed by treaties' less beneficial effects. The Article concludes by considering better ways to help ensure that human rights treaties improve the lives of those they are meant to help.

1,006 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: A theory of compliance sanctions Treaty-based Military and Economic Sanctions Membership Sanctions Unilateral Sanctions Toward a Strategy for Managing Compliance Norms Transparency, Norms, and Strategic Interaction Reporting and Data Collection Verification and Monitoring Instruments of Active Management Policy Review and Assessment Nongovernmental organizations Revitalizing International Organizations Appendix: List of Treaties Notes Index Index as mentioned in this paper
Abstract: Preface A Theory of Compliance Sanctions Treaty-Based Military and Economic Sanctions Membership Sanctions Unilateral Sanctions Toward a Strategy for Managing Compliance Norms Transparency, Norms, and Strategic Interaction Reporting and Data Collection Verification and Monitoring Instruments of Active Management Policy Review and Assessment Nongovernmental Organizations Revitalizing International Organizations Appendix: List of Treaties Notes Index

900 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
2023995
20222,343
2021446
2020610
2019763