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Tree (data structure)

About: Tree (data structure) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 44931 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 749669 citation(s). The topic is also known as: tree structure & tree.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes, where at least one path exists between any two nodes and the length of each branch is given.
Abstract: We consider n points (nodes), some or all pairs of which are connected by a branch; the length of each branch is given. We restrict ourselves to the case where at least one path exists between any two nodes. We now consider two problems. Problem 1. Constrnct the tree of minimum total length between the n nodes. (A tree is a graph with one and only one path between every two nodes.) In the course of the construction that we present here, the branches are subdivided into three sets: I. the branches definitely assignec~ to the tree under construction (they will form a subtree) ; II. the branches from which the next branch to be added to set I, will be selected ; III. the remaining branches (rejected or not yet considered). The nodes are subdivided into two sets: A. the nodes connected by the branches of set I, B. the remaining nodes (one and only one branch of set II will lead to each of these nodes), We start the construction by choosing an arbitrary node as the only member of set A, and by placing all branches that end in this node in set II. To start with, set I is empty. From then onwards we perform the following two steps repeatedly. Step 1. The shortest branch of set II is removed from this set and added to

21,172 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Stéphane Guindon1, Olivier Gascuel1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 2003-Systematic Biology
TL;DR: This work has used extensive and realistic computer simulations to show that the topological accuracy of this new method is at least as high as that of the existing maximum-likelihood programs and much higher than the performance of distance-based and parsimony approaches.
Abstract: The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximum- likelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The core of this method is a simple hill-climbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distance-based method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment of the topology and branch lengths, only a few iterations are sufficient to reach an optimum. We used extensive and realistic computer simulations to show that the topological accuracy of this new method is at least as high as that of the existing maximum-likelihood programs and much higher than the performance of distance-based and parsimony approaches. The reduction of computing time is dramatic in comparison with other maximum-likelihood packages, while the likelihood maximization ability tends to be higher. For example, only 12 min were required on a standard personal computer to analyze a data set consisting of 500 rbcL sequences with 1,428 base pairs from plant plastids, thus reaching a speed of the same order as some popular distance-based and parsimony algorithms. This new method is implemented in the PHYML program, which is freely available on our web page: http://www.lirmm.fr/w3ifa/MAAS/. (Algorithm; computer simulations; maximum likelihood; phylogeny; rbcL; RDPII project.) The size of homologous sequence data sets has in- creased dramatically in recent years, and many of these data sets now involve several hundreds of taxa. More- over, current probabilistic sequence evolution models (Swofford et al., 1996 ; Page and Holmes, 1998 ), notably those including rate variation among sites (Uzzell and Corbin, 1971 ; Jin and Nei, 1990 ; Yang, 1996 ), require an increasing number of calculations. Therefore, the speed of phylogeny reconstruction methods is becoming a sig- nificant requirement and good compromises between speed and accuracy must be found. The maximum likelihood (ML) approach is especially accurate for building molecular phylogenies. Felsenstein (1981) brought this framework to nucleotide-based phy- logenetic inference, and it was later also applied to amino acid sequences (Kishino et al., 1990). Several vari- ants were proposed, most notably the Bayesian meth- ods (Rannala and Yang 1996; and see below), and the discrete Fourier analysis of Hendy et al. (1994), for ex- ample. Numerous computer studies (Huelsenbeck and Hillis, 1993; Kuhner and Felsenstein, 1994; Huelsenbeck, 1995; Rosenberg and Kumar, 2001; Ranwez and Gascuel, 2002) have shown that ML programs can recover the cor- rect tree from simulated data sets more frequently than other methods can. Another important advantage of the ML approach is the ability to compare different trees and evolutionary models within a statistical framework (see Whelan et al., 2001, for a review). However, like all optimality criterion-based phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, ML is hampered by computational difficul- ties, making it impossible to obtain the optimal tree with certainty from even moderate data sets (Swofford et al., 1996). Therefore, all practical methods rely on heuristics that obtain near-optimal trees in reasonable computing time. Moreover, the computation problem is especially difficult with ML, because the tree likelihood not only depends on the tree topology but also on numerical pa- rameters, including branch lengths. Even computing the optimal values of these parameters on a single tree is not an easy task, particularly because of possible local optima (Chor et al., 2000). The usual heuristic method, implemented in the pop- ular PHYLIP (Felsenstein, 1993 ) and PAUP ∗ (Swofford, 1999 ) packages, is based on hill climbing. It combines stepwise insertion of taxa in a growing tree and topolog- ical rearrangement. For each possible insertion position and rearrangement, the branch lengths of the resulting tree are optimized and the tree likelihood is computed. When the rearrangement improves the current tree or when the position insertion is the best among all pos- sible positions, the corresponding tree becomes the new current tree. Simple rearrangements are used during tree growing, namely "nearest neighbor interchanges" (see below), while more intense rearrangements can be used once all taxa have been inserted. The procedure stops when no rearrangement improves the current best tree. Despite significant decreases in computing times, no- tably in fastDNAml (Olsen et al., 1994 ), this heuristic becomes impracticable with several hundreds of taxa. This is mainly due to the two-level strategy, which sepa- rates branch lengths and tree topology optimization. In- deed, most calculations are done to optimize the branch lengths and evaluate the likelihood of trees that are finally rejected. New methods have thus been proposed. Strimmer and von Haeseler (1996) and others have assembled four- taxon (quartet) trees inferred by ML, in order to recon- struct a complete tree. However, the results of this ap- proach have not been very satisfactory to date (Ranwez and Gascuel, 2001 ). Ota and Li (2000, 2001) described

15,495 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Roderic D. M. Page1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 1996-Bioinformatics
TL;DR: TreeView is a simple, easy to use phylogenetic tree viewing utility that runs under both MacOS (on Apple Macintosh computers) and under Microsoft Windows on Intel based computers, the two most common personal computers used by biologists.
Abstract: TreeView is a simple, easy to use phylogenetic tree viewing utility that runs under both MacOS (on Apple Macintosh computers) and under Microsoft Windows on Intel based computers, the two most common personal computers used by biologists. Some phylogeny programs, such as PAUP (Swofford, 1993) and MacClade (Maddison and Maddison, 1992) already provide excellent tree drawing and printing facilities, however at present these programs are restricted to Apple Macintosh computers. Furthermore, they require the user to load a data set before any trees can be displayed which is inconvenient if the user simply wants to view the trees. More portable programs, such as DRAWGRAM and DRAWTREE in the PHYLIP package (Felsenstein, 1993) can run on both MacOS and Windows computers, but make little, if any use of the graphical interface features available under those operating systems. TreeView runs as a native application on either MacOS or Windows computers, enables the user to use the standard fonts installed on their machine, their printer, and supports the relevant native graphics format (PICT and Windows metafile) for either creating graphics files or pasting pictures to other applications via the clipboard. The program also supports standard file operations, such as 'drag and drop' whereby dragging a file's icon onto the program opens that file. TreeView can read a range of tree file formats (see below) and can display trees in a range of styles (Fig. 1). Additional information, such as edge lengths and internal node labels can also be displayed. The order of the terminal taxa in the tree can be altered, and the tree can be rerooted. If the tree file contains more than one tree the user can view each tree in turn. The program can also save trees in a variety of file formats, so that it can be used to move trees between programs that use different file formats.

10,236 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented and found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space.
Abstract: Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%. IQ-TREE is freely available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree.

8,090 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Ben Shneiderman1Institutions (1)
03 Sep 1996-
TL;DR: A task by data type taxonomy with seven data types and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts) is offered.
Abstract: A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the visual information seeking Mantra: overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. The paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data types (one, two, three dimensional data, temporal and multi dimensional data, and tree and network data) and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts).

4,915 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202231
20211,943
20202,108
20192,202
20182,204
20171,892