About: Trimethyltin chloride is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 184 publications have been published within this topic receiving 3343 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Treatment of rats with trimethyltin provides a chronic preparation with consistent lesions in the hippocampus of use in other behavioral and neuroanatomic studies.
Abstract: Trimethyltin, when given by gavage to rats, has an LD50 of 12.6 mg/kg. Signs of poisoning include tremors, hyperexcitability, aggressive behavior, weight loss, and convulsions. After single (10 mg/kg) or repeated weekly doses (a maximum of four) of 4 mg/kg, rats, up to a survival time of 70 days, were perfusion-fixed for light microscopy. Trimethyltin was assayed in brain and blood in rats after similar treatments. Trimethyltin is cumulative and persistent and binds with high affinity to hemoglobin. Trimethyltin, unlike triethyltin, does not produce white matter edema in rats but does cause bilateral and symmetrical neuronal alterations involving the hippocampus (largely sparing the Sommer sector), pyriform cortex, amygdaloid nucleus, and neocortex. The earliest alteration was loss or dispersal of Nissl substance, then clumping of nuclear chromatin, followed by shrinkage and fragmentation of the nucleus within shrunken eosinophilic cytoplasm. These changes were associated with approximately 1.4 microgram trimethyltin/g wet weight in brain tissue 1 day after the second dose of 4 mg/kg or 2 days after a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Signs of poisoning gradually disappeared, and 4 rats surviving 70 days appeared normal, although their brains had severe damage with cell loss in the hippocampi and each pyriform cortex. Treatment of rats with trimethyltin, therefore, provides a chronic preparation with consistent lesions in the hippocampus of use in other behavioral and neuroanatomic studies. (Am J Pathol 97:59--82, 1979).
TL;DR: It is concluded that the lower trialkyltins are essentially neurotoxic, the intermediate trialkytins (TPTC, TBTC) and triphenyltin are primarily immunotoxic, and the higher homologs (THTC, TOTC) are only slightly toxic or not toxic at all.
Abstract: In 2-week feeding studies, a series of trialkyltin chlorides and triphenyltin chloride were fed to male weanling rats at different dietary concentrations to evaluate their toxic effects, especially on the brains and the lymphoid organs, thymus and spleen. The lower trialkyltin homologs, trimethyltin chloride (TMTC) and triethyltin chloride (TETC), were neurotoxic, causing neuronal degradation and cerebral edema, respectively, at dietary concentrations of 15 ppm. The intermediate homologs, tri-n-propyltin chloride (TPTC) and tri-n-butyltin chloride (TBTC), and the aromatic compound, triphenyltin chloride (TPhTC), caused a dose-related reduction of thymus weight. At a dietary concentration of 150 ppm decreases in thymus weight to 53, 39, and 81% of controls were found following treatment with TPTC, TBTC, and TPhTC, respectively. Microscopically, thymus atrophy was associated with a lymphocyte depletion in the thymic cortex. Only 16% of the total number of nucleated thymocytes could be isolated from rats fed 150 ppm TBTC. These effects were completely reversed within 2 weeks. Slight thymus atrophy was observed after feeding a relatively high dose of 150 mg tri-n-hexyltin chloride (THTC)/kg diet, whereas tri-n-octyltin chloride (TOTC) was ineffective. A dose-related decrease in spleen weight was noticed after 2 weeks feeding of TPTC, TBTC, and TPhTC. Liver weights were increased in rats fed TBTC, THTC, and TPhTC for 2 weeks. Nevertheless, no enlarged livers and normal spleen weights were found upon feeding 100 ppm TPTC or TBTC for 4 weeks, whereas thymus weight was severely decreased. Therefore, atrophy of the thymus was considered to be the predominant effect of the intermediate trialkyltins (TPTC, TBTC). From this study it is concluded that the lower trialkyltins (TMTC, TETC) are essentially neurotoxic, the intermediate trialkytins (TPTC, TBTC) and triphenyltin are primarily immunotoxic, and the higher homologs (THTC, TOTC) are only slightly toxic or not toxic at all.
TL;DR: Of all the compounds tested in this work, trimethyltin chloride was, by far, the most toxic and synergistic, and also found to be synergistic was the interactive effect of trimethyeltin chloride with cadmium and chromium applied together.
Abstract: The effects of three organotin compounds-trimethyltin chloride, dimethyltin dichloride, and dibutyltin diacetate-and two heavy metals-cadmium and hexavalent chromium-on Artemia franciscana mortality are investigated in this study. Of all the compounds tested in this work, trimethyltin chloride was, by far, the most toxic. The toxicity order for the five compounds was trimethyltin chloride > potassium dichromate > dimethyltin dichloride > dibutyltin diacetate > cadmium chloride. The big difference in toxicity between dialkyltin and trialkyltin was not accompanied by an equally big difference in bioaccumulation. At a Sn concentration in water of 10 mg/L, the bioconcentration factor was 50 for dimethyltin dichloride and 75 for trimethyltin chloride. At a Sn concentration in water of 100 mg/L, the bioconcentration factor for 6 for dimethyltin dichloride and 9 for trimethyltin chloride. The interactive effect of trimethyltin chloride and cadmium, as well as that of trimethyltin chloride and chromium, was found to be synergistic. Also found to be synergistic was the interactive effect of trimethyltin chloride with cadmium and chromium applied together.
TL;DR: In this article, a number of α-bromocyclopropyllithium reagents have been prepared at low temperature (−90° to −100°) in THF or THF/Et2O medium by reaction of n-butyllithium with the respective gem-dibromocyCLopropane.
Abstract: A number of α-bromocyclopropyllithium reagents have been prepared at low temperature (−90° to −100°) in THF or THF/Et2O medium by reaction of n-butyllithium with the respective gem-dibromocyclopropane. Reactions of these new lithium reagents with concentrated HCl, trimethylchlorosilane, dimethyldichlorosilane, trimethyltin chloride, dimethyltin dichloride, dimethyldichlorogermane, trimethyllead bromide, mercuric chloride and some other organometallic halides are described. A novel isomerization of syn-7-bromo-anti-7-lithionorcarane to anti-7-bromo-syn-7-lithionorcarane, induced by the presence of a slight excess of 7,7-dibromonorcarane, is described.
TL;DR: Of the triorganotin compounds especially the lipophilic homologues are cytotoxic in vitro, and the water soluble homologue trimethyltin chloride (TMTC) was least effective in all test models.
Abstract: To further investigate the immunotoxic effects of tri-n-propyltin chloride (TPTC), tri-n-butyltin chloride (TBTC) and triphenyltin chloride (TPhTC) several cytotoxicity tests with a series of trialkyltin chlorides and TPhTC were carried out, using isolated rat thymocytes as target cells. Thymocytes, cultured in a serum-supplemented medium, were exposed to organotin concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM for periods up to 30 h. Parameters such as cell count, trypan blue exclusion, chromium release, thymidine incorporation and cyclic AMP production were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these compounds. The more lipophilic compounds TPTC, TBTC, tri-n-hexyltin chloride (THTC) and TPhTC appeared most cytotoxicity, reducing thymidine incorporation at concentrations as low as 0.05–1 μM. Membrane damage as determined by trypan blue exclusion and chromium release occurred at higher levels (1–10 μM). The water soluble homologue trimethyltin chloride (TMTC) was least effective in all test models. When phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with glucose was used as incubation medium, TBTC appeared more cytotoxic to thymocytes. Using this medium in 5-h incubations the cytotoxicity of TBTC to thymus, bone marrow and red blood cells was compared. Bone marrow cells were slightly less sensitive than thymocytes, while red cells were relatively resistant. In conclusion, of the triorganotin compounds especially the lipophilic homologues are cytotoxic in vitro.