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Triplet state

About: Triplet state is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13570 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 338717 citation(s). The topic is also known as: spin triplet & triplet (state). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Marc A. Baldo1, D. F. O’Brien1, Yujian You2, Andrei Shoustikov2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
10 Sep 1998-Nature
Abstract: The efficiency of electroluminescent organic light-emitting devices1,2 can be improved by the introduction3 of a fluorescent dye. Energy transfer from the host to the dye occurs via excitons, but only the singlet spin states induce fluorescent emission; these represent a small fraction (about 25%) of the total excited-state population (the remainder are triplet states). Phosphorescent dyes, however, offer a means of achieving improved light-emission efficiencies, as emission may result from both singlet and triplet states. Here we report high-efficiency (≳90%) energy transfer from both singlet and triplet states, in a host material doped with the phosphorescent dye 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine platinum(II) (PtOEP). Our doped electroluminescent devices generate saturated red emission with peak external and internal quantum efficiencies of 4% and 23%, respectively. The luminescent efficiencies attainable with phosphorescent dyes may lead to new applications for organic materials. Moreover, our work establishes the utility of PtOEP as a probe of triplet behaviour and energy transfer in organic solid-state systems. more

6,544 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The molecular exciton model has received its most extensive development and application in the field of molecular crystals1'2. More recently, numerous applications to non-crystalline molecular composite systems have been made, including van der Waals and hydrogen-bonded dimers, trimers, and higher order aggregates. Another type of composite system has also been investigated, namely the composite molecule consisting of covalently bonded molecular units, with intrinsic individual unsaturated electronic systems so isolated by single bonds that but little or insignificant electronic overlap between units may occur. It is now well established that in molecular aggregates and in composite molecules, exciton effects may be observed if sufficiently strong electronic transitions exist in the component sub-units. The result of exciton splitting of excited states in the composite molecule may be the appearance of strong spectral shifts or splittings (which may be of the order of 2000 cm—1) of the absorption bands for the component molecules. At the same time, as a consequence of the exciton splitting of the excited state manifold, an enhancement of triplet state excitation may result. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the various type cases for molecular dimers, trimers and double and triple molecules in the description of the molecular exciton strong-coupling model. Then it will be shown by new experimental examples that, even in those cases where no significant exciton effect is observable in the singlet—singlet absorption spectrum for the composite molecule (intermediate and weak coupling cases), the enhancement of lowest triplet state excitation may still be conspicuous and significant. The ideas which are summarized in this paper have a curious history. Long ago, Kautsky and Merkel3 demonstrated experimentally that aggregation of dyes facilitated their action as photophysical sensitizers in photochemical reactions, at the same time diminishing their fluorescence efficiency. Kautsky attributed these easily demonstrated effects to enhancement of metastable state excitation in the aggregate dye. There is no doubt today that the metastable state he described is the lowest triplet state of the molecules studied. However, he did not distinguish between intrinsic and enhanced metastable (triplet) state excitation, so his interpretations were largely overlooked. Forster in l946 used the quasi-classical vector model to more

3,330 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jason R. Petta1, Jason R. Petta2, Jason R. Petta3, A. C. Johnson1  +23 moreInstitutions (3)
30 Sep 2005-Science
TL;DR: It is demonstrated coherent control of a quantum two-level system based on two-electron spin states in a double quantum dot, allowing state preparation, coherent manipulation, and projective readout based on rapid electrical control of the exchange interaction. more

Abstract: We demonstrated coherent control of a quantum two-level system based on two-electron spin states in a double quantum dot, allowing state preparation, coherent manipulation, and projective readout. These techniques are based on rapid electrical control of the exchange interaction. Separating and later recombining a singlet spin state provided a measurement of the spin dephasing time, T2*, of E10 nanoseconds, limited by hyperfine interactions with the gallium arsenide host nuclei. Rabi oscillations of two-electron spin states were demonstrated, and spin-echo pulse sequences were used to suppress hyperfine-induced dephasing. Using these quantum control techniques, a coherence time for two-electron spin states exceeding 1 microsecond was observed. more

2,573 citations


01 Jan 1973-
Abstract: . Photophysics of Organic Molecules in Solution Triplet-State Energies: Ordered Flash Photolysis: Designing Experiments Low Temperature Photophysics of Organic Molecules Ground-State Absorption Spectra ESR and ODMR Parameters of the Triplet State Diffusion-Controlled Rate Constants Rate Constants of Singlet-State Quenching Rate Constants of Triplet-State Quenching Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Redox Potentials of Organic Compounds Bond Dissociation Energies Solvent Properties Chemical Actinometry Transmission Characteristics of Light Filters and Glasses Spectral Distribution of Photochemical Sources Spin-Orbit Coupling Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors Hammett (T Constants Bibliography and Indexes References Compound Name Index Molecular Formula Index more

2,392 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Brebis Bleaney1, K. D. Bowers1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The paramagnetic resonance spectrum of copper acetate is anomalous in that it resembles that of an ion of spin 1, and its intensity decreases as the temperature is lowered. The latter is correlated with the decreasing susceptibility found by Guha (1951). The following hypo­theses are suggested: (1) the crystalline field acting on each copper ion is similar to that in other salts such as the Tutton salts; (2) isolated pairs of copper ions interact strongly through exchange forces, each pair forming a lower singlet state and an upper triplet state, the latter only being paramagnetic. On this basis both the fine structure and the hyperfine structure of the spectrum have a simple explanation, and the theory also predicts a small initial split­ting of the triplet state of the same order as that found experimentally. The unit cell of the crystal contains two differently oriented pairs of ions, and, using an empirical value for the exchange parameter, fair agreement with the susceptibility measurements of Guha is obtained. more

1,760 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jianzhang Zhao

87 papers, 3.3K citations

Helmut Görner

54 papers, 1.8K citations

J.H. van der Waals

50 papers, 1.6K citations

Arnold J. Hoff

36 papers, 732 citations

Tatsuo Arai

34 papers, 492 citations