About: Triterpene is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4180 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 81137 citation(s). The topic is also known as: triterpenes.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The oleanane skeleton was the most common skeleton and is present in most orders of the plant kingdom, and the relationship between the type of skeleton and the plant origin was investigated.
Abstract: Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into triterpenoid, spirostanol, and furostanol saponins. In this study, the structures of saponins are reviewed and classified based on their carbon skeletons, the formation of which follows the main pathways for the biosynthesis of triterpenes and steroids. In this way, 11 main classes of saponins were distinguished: dammaranes, tirucallanes, lupanes, hopanes, oleananes, taraxasteranes, ursanes, cycloartanes, lanostanes, cucurbitanes, and steroids. The dammaranes, lupanes, hopanes, oleananes, ursanes, and steroids are further divided into 16 subclasses, because their carbon skeletons are subjected to fragmentation, homologation, and degradation reactions. With this systematic classification, the relationship between the type of skeleton and the plant origin was investigated. Up to five main classes of skeletons could exist within one plant order, but the distribution of skeletons in the plant kingdom did not seem to be order- or subclass-specific. The oleanane skeleton was the most common skeleton and is present in most orders of the plant kingdom. For oleanane type saponins, the kind of substituents (e.g. OH, O, monosaccharide residues, etc.) and their position of attachment to the skeleton were reviewed. Carbohydrate chains of 18 monosaccharide residues can be attached to the oleanane skeleton, most commonly at the C3 and/or C17 atom. The kind and positions of the substituents did not seem to be plant order-specific.
Abstract: The biogenetic isoprene rule in its application to the triterpenes is discussed from a stereochemical standpoint. On the basis of a well defined system of arbitrary assumptions a scheme has been developed leading from squalene to the formulae of the basic representatives of all known cyclic triterpene groups - i.e. euphol, tirucallol, lupeol, taraxasterol, germanicol, β-amyrin, taraxerol, friedelin, α-amyrin, lanosterol - in their full structural and configurational detail. This result is considered to support the squalene hypothesis of the biogenesis of cyclic triterpenes.
TL;DR: The triterpenoids are a large group of natural products derived from C(30) precursors and each of these structures is classified and mechanisms for their formation are provided.
Abstract: The triterpenoids are a large group of natural products derived from C(30) precursors. Nearly 200 different triterpene skeletons are known from natural sources or enzymatic reactions that are structurally consistent with being cyclization products of squalene, oxidosqualene, or bis-oxidosqualene. This review categorizes each of these structures and provides mechanisms for their formation.
TL;DR: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity and are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents.
Abstract: Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the potential of triterpenes belonging to the lupane, oleanane or ursane group, to treat cancer by different modes of action and utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest.
Abstract: Today cancer treatment is not only a question of eliminating cancer cells by induction of cell death. New therapeutic strategies also include targeting the tumour microenvironment, avoiding angiogenesis, modulating the immune response or the chronic inflammation that is often associated with cancer. Furthermore, the induction of redifferentiation of dedifferentiated cancer cells is an interesting aspect in developing new therapy strategies. Plants provide a broad spectrum of potential drug substances for cancer therapy with multifaceted effects and targets. Pentacyclic triterpenes are one group of promising secondary plant metabolites. This review summarizes the potential of triterpenes belonging to the lupane, oleanane or ursane group, to treat cancer by different modes of action. Since Pisha et al. reported in 1995 that betulinic acid is a highly promising anticancer drug after inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo, experimental work focused on the apoptosis inducing mechanisms of betulinic acid and other triterpenes. The antitumour effects were subsequently confirmed in a series of cancer cell lines from other origins, for example breast, colon, lung and neuroblastoma. In addition, in the last decade many studies have shown further effects that justify the expectation that triterpenes are useful to treat cancer by several modes of action. Thus, triterpene acids are known mainly for their antiangiogenic effects as well as their differentiation inducing effects. In particular, lupane-type triterpenes, such as betulin, betulinic acid and lupeol, display anti-inflammatory activities which often accompany immune modulation. Triterpene acids as well as triterpene monoalcohols and diols also show an antioxidative potential. The pharmacological potential of triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane or ursane type for cancer treatment seems high; although up to now no clinical trial has been published using these triterpenes in cancer therapy. They provide a multitarget potential for coping with new cancer strategies. Whether this is an effective approach for cancer treatment has to be proven. Because various triterpenes are an increasingly promising group of plant metabolites, the utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest. Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions.