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Tunstall coding

About: Tunstall coding is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2432 publications have been published within this topic receiving 72631 citations.

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05 Mar 2009
TL;DR: This chapter discusses writing Analytic Memos About Narrative and Visual Data and exercises for Coding and Qualitative Data Analytic Skill Development.
Abstract: An Introduction to Codes and Coding Chapter Summary Purposes of the Manual What Is a Code? Codifying and Categorizing What Gets Coded? The Mechanics of Coding The Numbers of Codes Manual and CAQDAS Coding Solo and Team Coding Necessary Personal Attributes for Coding On Method Writing Analytic Memos Chapter Summary The Purposes of Analytic Memo-Writing What Is an Analytic Memo? Examples of Analytic Memos Coding and Categorizing Analytic Memos Grounded Theory and Its Coding Canon Analytic Memos on Visual Data First-Cycle Coding Methods Chapter Summary The Coding Cycles Selecting the Appropriate Coding Method(s) Overview of First-Cycle Coding Methods The Coding Methods Profiles Grammatical Methods Elemental Methods Affective Methods Literary and Language Methods Exploratory Methods Forms for Additional First-Cycle Coding Methods Theming the Data Procedural Methods After First-Cycle Coding Chapter Summary Post-Coding Transitions Eclectic Coding Code Mapping and Landscaping Operational Model Diagramming Additional Transition Methods Transitioning to Second-Cycle Coding Methods Second-Cycle Coding Methods Chapter Summary The Goals of Second-Cycle Methods Overview of Second-Cycle Coding Methods Second-Cycle Coding Methods Forms for Additional Second-Cycle Coding Methods After Second-Cycle Coding Chapter Summary Post-Coding and Pre-Writing Transitions Focusing Strategies From Coding to Theorizing Formatting Matters Writing about Coding Ordering and Re-Ordering Assistance from Others Closure Appendix A: A Glossary of Coding Methods Appendix B: A Glossary of Analytic Recommendations Appendix C: Field Note, Interview Transcript and Document Samples for Coding Appendix D: Exercises and Activities for Coding and Qualitative Data Analytic Skill Development References Index

22,890 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed concept of compressibility is shown to play a role analogous to that of entropy in classical information theory where one deals with probabilistic ensembles of sequences rather than with individual sequences.
Abstract: Compressibility of individual sequences by the class of generalized finite-state information-lossless encoders is investigated. These encoders can operate in a variable-rate mode as well as a fixed-rate one, and they allow for any finite-state scheme of variable-length-to-variable-length coding. For every individual infinite sequence x a quantity \rho(x) is defined, called the compressibility of x , which is shown to be the asymptotically attainable lower bound on the compression ratio that can be achieved for x by any finite-state encoder. This is demonstrated by means of a constructive coding theorem and its converse that, apart from their asymptotic significance, also provide useful performance criteria for finite and practical data-compression tasks. The proposed concept of compressibility is also shown to play a role analogous to that of entropy in classical information theory where one deals with probabilistic ensembles of sequences rather than with individual sequences. While the definition of \rho(x) allows a different machine for each different sequence to be compressed, the constructive coding theorem leads to a universal algorithm that is asymptotically optimal for all sequences.

3,753 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method, which gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.
Abstract: The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

3,188 citations

01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: The author explains the development of the Huffman Coding Algorithm and some of the techniques used in its implementation, as well as some of its applications, including Image Compression, which is based on the JBIG standard.
Abstract: Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Compression Techniques 1.1.1 Lossless Compression 1.1.2 Lossy Compression 1.1.3 Measures of Performance 1.2 Modeling and Coding 1.3 Organization of This Book 1.4 Summary 1.5 Projects and Problems 2 Mathematical Preliminaries 2.1 Overview 2.2 A Brief Introduction to Information Theory 2.3 Models 2.3.1 Physical Models 2.3.2 Probability Models 2.3.3. Markov Models 2.3.4 Summary 2.5 Projects and Problems 3 Huffman Coding 3.1 Overview 3.2 "Good" Codes 3.3. The Huffman Coding Algorithm 3.3.1 Minimum Variance Huffman Codes 3.3.2 Length of Huffman Codes 3.3.3 Extended Huffman Codes 3.4 Nonbinary Huffman Codes 3.5 Adaptive Huffman Coding 3.5.1 Update Procedure 3.5.2 Encoding Procedure 3.5.3 Decoding Procedure 3.6 Applications of Huffman Coding 3.6.1 Lossless Image Compression 3.6.2 Text Compression 3.6.3 Audio Compression 3.7 Summary 3.8 Projects and Problems 4 Arithmetic Coding 4.1 Overview 4.2 Introduction 4.3 Coding a Sequence 4.3.1 Generating a Tag 4.3.2 Deciphering the Tag 4.4 Generating a Binary Code 4.4.1 Uniqueness and Efficiency of the Arithmetic Code 4.4.2 Algorithm Implementation 4.4.3 Integer Implementation 4.5 Comparison of Huffman and Arithmetic Coding 4.6 Applications 4.6.1 Bi-Level Image Compression-The JBIG Standard 4.6.2 Image Compression 4.7 Summary 4.8 Projects and Problems 5 Dictionary Techniques 5.1 Overview 5.2 Introduction 5.3 Static Dictionary 5.3.1 Diagram Coding 5.4 Adaptive Dictionary 5.4.1 The LZ77 Approach 5.4.2 The LZ78 Approach 5.5 Applications 5.5.1 File Compression-UNIX COMPRESS 5.5.2 Image Compression-the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) 5.5.3 Compression over Modems-V.42 bis 5.6 Summary 5.7 Projects and Problems 6 Lossless Image Compression 6.1 Overview 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Facsimile Encoding 6.3.1 Run-Length Coding 6.3.2 CCITT Group 3 and 4-Recommendations T.4 and T.6 6.3.3 Comparison of MH, MR, MMR, and JBIG 6.4 Progressive Image Transmission 6.5 Other Image Compression Approaches 6.5.1 Linear Prediction Models 6.5.2 Context Models 6.5.3 Multiresolution Models 6.5.4 Modeling Prediction Errors 6.6 Summary 6.7 Projects and Problems 7 Mathematical Preliminaries 7.1 Overview 7.2 Introduction 7.3 Distortion Criteria 7.3.1 The Human Visual System 7.3.2 Auditory Perception 7.4 Information Theory Revisted 7.4.1 Conditional Entropy 7.4.2 Average Mutual Information 7.4.3 Differential Entropy 7.5 Rate Distortion Theory 7.6 Models 7.6.1 Probability Models 7.6.2 Linear System Models 7.6.3 Physical Models 7.7 Summary 7.8 Projects and Problems 8 Scalar Quantization 8.1 Overview 8.2 Introduction 8.3 The Quantization Problem 8.4 Uniform Quantizer 8.5 Adaptive Quantization 8.5.1 Forward Adaptive Quantization 8.5.2 Backward Adaptive Quantization 8.6 Nonuniform Quantization 8.6.1 pdf-Optimized Quantization 8.6.2 Companded Quantization 8.7 Entropy-Coded Quantization 8.7.1 Entropy Coding of Lloyd-Max Quantizer Outputs 8.7.2 Entropy-Constrained Quantization 8.7.3 High-Rate Optimum Quantization 8.8 Summary 8.9 Projects and Problems 9 Vector Quantization 9.1 Overview 9.2 Introduction 9.3 Advantages of Vector Quantization over Scalar Quantization 9.4 The Linde-Buzo-Gray Algorithm 9.4.1 Initializing the LBG Algorithm 9.4.2 The Empty Cell Problem 9.4.3 Use of LBG for Image Compression 9.5 Tree-Structured Vector Quantizers 9.5.1 Design of Tree-Structured Vector Quantizers 9.6 Structured Vector Quantizers 9.6.1 Pyramid Vector Quantization 9.6.2 Polar and Spherical Vector Quantizers 9.6.3 Lattice Vector Quantizers 9.7 Variations on the Theme 9.7.1 Gain-Shape Vector Quantization 9.7.2 Mean-Removed Vector Quantization 9.7.3 Classified Vector Quantization 9.7.4 Multistage Vector Quantization 9.7.5 Adaptive Vector Quantization 9.8 Summary 9.9 Projects and Problems 10 Differential Encoding 10.1 Overview 10.2 Introduction 10.3 The Basic Algorithm 10.4 Prediction in DPCM 10.5 Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) 10.5.1 Adaptive Quantization in DPCM 10.5.2 Adaptive Prediction in DPCM 10.6 Delta Modulation 10.6.1 Constant Factor Adaptive Delta Modulation (CFDM) 10.6.2 Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation 10.7 Speech Coding 10.7.1 G.726 10.8 Summary 10.9 Projects and Problems 11 Subband Coding 11.1 Overview 11.2 Introduction 11.3 The Frequency Domain and Filtering 11.3.1 Filters 11.4 The Basic Subband Coding Algorithm 11.4.1 Bit Allocation 11.5 Application to Speech Coding-G.722 11.6 Application to Audio Coding-MPEG Audio 11.7 Application to Image Compression 11.7.1 Decomposing an Image 11.7.2 Coding the Subbands 11.8 Wavelets 11.8.1 Families of Wavelets 11.8.2 Wavelets and Image Compression 11.9 Summary 11.10 Projects and Problems 12 Transform Coding 12.1 Overview 12.2 Introduction 12.3 The Transform 12.4 Transforms of Interest 12.4.1 Karhunen-Loeve Transform 12.4.2 Discrete Cosine Transform 12.4.3 Discrete Sine Transform 12.4.4 Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform 12.5 Quantization and Coding of Transform Coefficients 12.6 Application to Image Compression-JPEG 12.6.1 The Transform 12.6.2 Quantization 12.6.3 Coding 12.7 Application to Audio Compression 12.8 Summary 12.9 Projects and Problems 13 Analysis/Synthesis Schemes 13.1 Overview 13.2 Introduction 13.3 Speech Compression 13.3.1 The Channel Vocoder 13.3.2 The Linear Predictive Coder (Gov.Std.LPC-10) 13.3.3 Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) 13.3.4 Sinusoidal Coders 13.4 Image Compression 13.4.1 Fractal Compression 13.5 Summary 13.6 Projects and Problems 14 Video Compression 14.1 Overview 14.2 Introduction 14.3 Motion Compensation 14.4 Video Signal Representation 14.5 Algorithms for Videoconferencing and Videophones 14.5.1 ITU_T Recommendation H.261 14.5.2 Model-Based Coding 14.6 Asymmetric Applications 14.6.1 The MPEG Video Standard 14.7 Packet Video 14.7.1 ATM Networks 14.7.2 Compression Issues in ATM Networks 14.7.3 Compression Algorithms for Packet Video 14.8 Summary 14.9 Projects and Problems A Probability and Random Processes A.1 Probability A.2 Random Variables A.3 Distribution Functions A.4 Expectation A.5 Types of Distribution A.6 Stochastic Process A.7 Projects and Problems B A Brief Review of Matrix Concepts B.1 A Matrix B.2 Matrix Operations C Codes for Facsimile Encoding D The Root Lattices Bibliography Index

2,311 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2005
TL;DR: The recent development of practical distributed video coding schemes is reviewed, finding that the rate-distortion performance is superior to conventional intraframe coding, but there is still a gap relative to conventional motion-compensated interframe coding.
Abstract: Distributed coding is a new paradigm for video compression, based on Slepian and Wolf's and Wyner and Ziv's information-theoretic results from the 1970s. This paper reviews the recent development of practical distributed video coding schemes. Wyner-Ziv coding, i.e., lossy compression with receiver side information, enables low-complexity video encoding where the bulk of the computation is shifted to the decoder. Since the interframe dependence of the video sequence is exploited only at the decoder, an intraframe encoder can be combined with an interframe decoder. The rate-distortion performance is superior to conventional intraframe coding, but there is still a gap relative to conventional motion-compensated interframe coding. Wyner-Ziv coding is naturally robust against transmission errors and can be used for joint source-channel coding. A Wyner-Ziv MPEG encoder that protects the video waveform rather than the compressed bit stream achieves graceful degradation under deteriorating channel conditions without a layered signal representation.

1,342 citations

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