About: Turbidity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7010 publications have been published within this topic receiving 95179 citations.
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01 Jan 1979
TL;DR: This work focuses on water quality and aquaculture in the context of ponds, and investigates the role of manure, water quality, and waste management in the development and management of these facilities.
Abstract: Preface. Selected Atomic Weights. Customary Metric Conversion Factors. 1. Water Quality and Aquaculture: Preliminary Considerations. 2. Ecology of Aquaculture Ponds. 3. Water Quality Requirements. 4. Water Use. 5. Liming. 6. Fertilization. 7. Aeration. 8. Water Circulation. 9. Turbidity and Appearance of Water. 10. Aquatic Weed Control. 11. Off-Flavors and Harmful Algae. 12. Pollution. 13. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatments. 14. Waste Management. 15. Measurement of Water Quality. 16. Sustainability and Environmental Issues. References. Index.
TL;DR: It is apparent however, that juveniles of many species are probably not attracted to estuaries per se but to shallow turbid areas, and the influence of high turbidity on fish may be linked to reduced predation pressure and perhaps food supply in shallow water.
Abstract: The differential distributions of juveniles and adults of 25 species of teleost were investigated and compared from four habitat types in sub-tropical Moreton Bay, Queensland. The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the distribution of juveniles, particularly the species which enter estuaries. The following habitats were sampled: a shallow, sheltered tidal estuary (Caboolture); a shallow, exposed bay with muddy substrates (Deception Bay); an exposed area of sandy substrates and seagrass (Toorbol Point) and a sheltered oceanic site with sandy substrates and seagrass (Kooringal). Data on diet, spawning seasons and recruitment periods of fry are presented together with measurements of salinity, temperature and turbidity. Species entering estuaries recruited mainly in summer (rainy season). The possible preference of juveniles for calm water, the roles of food and predation pressure, the effects of salinity, temperature and turbidity are discussed in relation to the biology and distribution of the fish. Salinity and temperature were probably not important to most juvenile fish. The effects of calm water, suitable food and predators vary according to species. Although all juveniles studied preferred shallow water, in the case of those entering estuaries, turbidity was the single most important factor. Juveniles of the same species occurred in both the estuary and Deception Bay where abiotic and biotic factors other than turbidity were different. During summer, turbidity gradients extended from east to west in Moreton Bay with highest turbidities in Caboolture estuary and Deception Bay. In winter, turbidities throughout Moreton Bay were low and relatively uniform. At this time many of the ‘clear water’ species occurred in Deception Bay. The influence of high turbidity on fish may be linked to reduced predation pressure and perhaps food supply in shallow water. Turbidity gradients in summer may aid fry in locating estuarine nursery grounds. It is apparent however, that juveniles of many species are probably not attracted to estuaries per se but to shallow turbid areas.
••01 Nov 1987
TL;DR: In many coastal plain estuaries light attenuation by suspended sediments confines the photic zone to a small fraction of the water column, such that light limitation is a major control on phytoplankon production and turnover rate.
Abstract: In many coastal plain estuaries light attenuation by suspended sediments confines the photic zone to a small fraction of the water column, such that light limitation is a major control on phytoplankon production and turnover rate. For a variety of estuarine systems (e.g. San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Delaware Bay, Hudson River plume), photic-zone productivity can be estimated as a function of phytoplankton biomass times mean irradiance of the photic zone. Net water column productivity also varies with light availability, and in San Francisco Bay net productivity is zero (estimated respiratory loss of phytoplankton balances photosynthesis) when the ratio of photic depth ( Z p ) to mixed depth ( Z m ) is less than about 0.2. Thus whenever Z p : Z m Much of the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass or productivity in estuaries is explained by variations in the ratio of photic depth to mixed depth. For example, phytoplankton blooms often coincide with stratification events that reduce the depth of the surface mixed layer (increase Z p : Z m ). Shallow estuarine embayments (high Z p : Z m ) are often characterized by high phytoplankton biomass relative to adjacent channels (low Z p : Z m ). Many estuaries have longitudinal gradients in productivity that mirror the distribution of suspended sediments: productivity is low near the riverine source of sediments (low Z p : Z m ) and increases toward the estuary mouth where turbidity decreases. Some of these generalizations are qualitative in nature, and detailed understanding of the interaction between turbidity and estuarine phytoplankton dynamics requires improved understanding of vertical mixing rates and phytoplankton respiration.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors use a beam transmissometry approach to measure Secchi or black disc visibility, a fundamental optical quantity with immediate environmental relevance to aesthetics, contact recreation, and fish habitat.
Abstract: Suspended sediment causes a range of environmental damage, including benthic smothering, irritation of fish gills, and transport of sorbed contaminants Much of the impact, while sediment remains suspended, is related to its light attenuation, which reduces visual range in water and light availability for photosynthesis Thus measurement of the optical attributes of suspended matter in many instances is more relevant than measurement of its mass concentration Nephelometric turbidity, an index of light scattering by suspended particles, has been widely used as a simple, cheap, instrumental surrogate for suspended sediment, that also relates more directly than mass concentration to optical effects of suspended matter However, turbidity is only a relative measure of scattering (versus arbitrary standards) that has no intrinsic environmental relevance until calibrated to a ‘proper’ scientific quantity Visual clarity (measured as Secchi or black disc visibility) is a preferred optical quantity with immediate environmental relevance to aesthetics, contact recreation, and fish habitat Contrary to common perception, visual clarity measurement is not particularly subjective and is more precise than turbidity measurement Black disc visibility is inter-convertible with beam attenuation, a fundamental optical quantity that can be monitored continuously by beam transmissometry Visual clarity or beam attenuation should supplant nephelometric turbidity in many water quality applications, including environmental standards
TL;DR: The commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters, including chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygendemand (COD).
Abstract: Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water’s surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).
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