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Type 1 diabetes

About: Type 1 diabetes is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26245 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 848009 citation(s). The topic is also known as: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus & type I diabetes mellitus. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM199309303291401
Abstract: Background Long-term microvascular and neurologic complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of these complications. Methods A total of 1441 patients with IDDM--726 with no retinopathy at base line (the primary-prevention cohort) and 715 with mild retinopathy (the secondary-intervention cohort) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy administered either with an external insulin pump or by three or more daily insulin injections and guided by frequent blood glucose monitoring or to conventional therapy with one or two daily insulin injections. The patients were followed for a mean of 6.5 years, and the appearance and progression of retinopathy and other complications were assessed regularly. Results In the primary-prevention cohort, intensive therapy reduced the adjusted mean risk for the development of retinopathy by 76 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 62 to 85 percent), as compared with conventional therapy. In the secondary-intervention cohort, intensive therapy slowed the progression of retinopathy by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 66 percent) and reduced the development of proliferative or severe nonproliferative retinopathy by 47 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14 to 67 percent). In the two cohorts combined, intensive therapy reduced the occurrence of microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 40 mg per 24 hours) by 39 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 21 to 52 percent), that of albuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 300 mg per 24 hours) by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval 19 to 74 percent), and that of clinical neuropathy by 60 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 38 to 74 percent). The chief adverse event associated with intensive therapy was a two-to-threefold increase in severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions Intensive therapy effectively delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in patients with IDDM. more

Topics: Insulin pump (56%), Type 1 diabetes (55%), Confidence interval (53%) more

20,182 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006165.PUB3
Sinead Brophy1, Helen Davies1, Sopna Mannan1, Huw Brunt  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly developing type 1 diabetes. Objectives To compare interventions used for LADA. Search methods Studies were obtained from searches of electronic databases, supplemented by handsearches, conference proceedings and consultation with experts. Date of last search was December 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) evaluating interventions for LADA or type 2 diabetes with antibodies were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were summarised using meta-analysis or descriptive methods. Main results Searches identified 13,306 citations. Fifteen publications (ten studies) were included, involving 1019 participants who were followed between three months to 10 years (1060 randomised). All studies had a high risk of bias. Sulphonylurea (SU) with insulin did not improve metabolic control significantly more than insulin alone at three months (one study, n = 15) and at 12 months (one study, n = 14) of treatment and follow-up. SU (with or without metformin) gave poorer metabolic control compared to insulin alone (mean difference in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to end of study, for insulin compared to oral therapy: -1.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.4 to -0.1; P = 0.03, 160 participants, four studies, follow-up/duration of therapy: 12, 30, 36 and 60 months; however, heterogeneity was considerable). In addition, there was evidence that SU caused earlier insulin dependence (proportion requiring insulin at two years was 30% in the SU group compared to 5% in conventional care group (P < 0.001); patients classified as insulin dependent was 64% (SU group) and 12.5% (insulin group, P = 0.007). No intervention influenced fasting C-peptide, but insulin maintained stimulated C-peptide better than SU (one study, mean difference 7.7 ng/ml (95% CI 2.9 to 12.5)). In a five year follow-up of GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase formulated with aluminium hydroxide), improvements in fasting and stimulated C-peptide levels (20 μg group) were maintained after five years. Short term (three months) follow-up in one study (n = 74) using Chinese remedies did not demonstrate a significant difference in improving fasting C-peptide levels compared to insulin alone (0.07 µg/L (95% CI -0.05 to 0.19). One study using vitamin D with insulin showed steady fasting C-peptide levels in the vitamin D group but declining fasting C-peptide levels (368 to 179 pmol/L, P = 0.006) in the insulin alone group at 12 months follow-up. Comparing studies was difficult as there was a great deal of heterogeneity in the studies and in their selection criteria. There was no information regarding health-related quality of life, complications of diabetes, cost or health service utilisation, mortality and limited evidence on adverse events (studies on oral agents or insulin reported no adverse events in terms of severe hypoglycaemic episodes). Authors' conclusions Two studies show SU leading to earlier insulin dependence and a meta-analysis of four studies with considerable heterogeneity showed poorer metabolic control if SU is prescribed for patients with LADA compared to insulin. One study showed that vitamin D with insulin may protect pancreatic beta cells in LADA. Novel treatments such as GAD65 in certain doses (20 μg) have been suggested to maintain fasting and stimulated C-peptide levels. However, there is no significant evidence for or against other lines of treatment of LADA. more

Topics: Type 1 diabetes (60%), Insulin (57%), Type 2 diabetes (56%) more

6,878 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA011161
Abstract: Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Interruption of the renin–angiotensin system slows the progression of renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are not available for patients with type 2, the most common form of diabetes. We assessed the role of the angiotensin-II–receptor antagonist losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Methods A total of 1513 patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study comparing losartan (50 to 100 mg once daily) with placebo, both taken in addition to conventional antihypertensive treatment (calcium-channel antagonists, diuretics, alpha-blockers, beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents), for a mean of 3.4 years. The primary outcome was the composite of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, end-stage renal disease, or death. Secondary end points included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, proteinuria, and the rate of prog... more

Topics: Nephropathy (60%), Losartan (60%), Kidney disease (59%) more

6,167 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM200007273430401
Abstract: Background Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year. Methods Seven consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes and a history of severe hypoglycemia and metabolic instability underwent islet transplantation in conjunction with a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen consisting of sirolimus, tacrolimus, and daclizumab. Islets were isolated by ductal perfusion with cold, purified collagenase, digested and purified in xenoprotein-free medium, and transplanted immediately by means of a percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization. Results All seven patients quickly attained sustained insulin independence after transplantation of a mean (±SD) islet mass of 11,547±1604 islet equivalents per kilogram of body weight (median follow-up, 11.9 months; range, 4.4 to 14.9). All recipients required islets from two donor pancreases, and one required a third transplant from tw... more

4,707 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA052187
Abstract: BACKGROUND Intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near normoglycemia reduces the risk of microvascular and neurologic complications of type 1 diabetes. We studied whether the use of intensive therapy as compared with conventional therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) affected the long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease. METHODS The DCCT randomly assigned 1441 patients with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional therapy, treating them for a mean of 6.5 years between 1983 and 1993. Ninety-three percent were subsequently followed until February 1, 2005, during the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Cardiovascular disease (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, confirmed angina, or the need for coronary-artery revascularization) was assessed with standardized measures and classified by an independent committee. RESULTS During the mean 17 years of follow-up, 46 cardiovascular disease events occurred in 31 patients who had received intensive treatment in the DCCT, as compared with 98 events in 52 patients who had received conventional treatment. Intensive treatment reduced the risk of any cardiovascular disease event by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 9 to 63 percent; P=0.02) and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease by 57 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 79 percent; P=0.02). The decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin values during the DCCT was significantly associated with most of the positive effects of intensive treatment on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria and albuminuria were associated with a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, but differences between treatment groups remained significant (P< or =0.05) after adjusting for these factors. CONCLUSIONS Intensive diabetes therapy has long-term beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. more

Topics: Diabetes Therapy (59%), Diabetes mellitus (55%), Type 1 diabetes (54%) more

4,398 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Mikael Knip

269 papers, 13.5K citations

Marian Rewers

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Åke Lernmark

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Per-Henrik Groop

174 papers, 6.7K citations

Jorma Ilonen

168 papers, 8.5K citations

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