About: Typing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5010 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 146539 citation(s).
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01 May 1992-Tissue Antigens
TL;DR: DR "low-resolution" typing by the PCR-SSP technique is ideally suited for analyzing small numbers of samples simultaneously and is an alternative to serological DR typing in routine clinical practice including donor-recipient matching in cadaveric transplantations.
Abstract: In most PCR-based tissue typing techniques the PCR amplification is followed by a post-amplification specificity step. In typing by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), typing specificity is part of the amplification step, which makes the technique almost as fast as serological tissue typing. In the present study primers were designed for DR "low-resolution" typing by PCR-SSP, i.e. identifying polymorphism corresponding to the serologically defined series DR1-DRw18. This resolution was achieved by performing 19 PCR reactions per individual, 17 for assigning DR1-DRw18 and 2 for the DRw52 and DRw53 superspecificities. Thirty cell lines and 121 individuals were typed by the DR "low-resolution" PCR-SSP technique, TaqI DRB-DQA-DQB RFLP analysis and serology. The concordance between PCR-SSP typing and RFLP analysis was 100%. The reproducibility was 100% in 40 samples typed on two separate occasions. No false-positive or false-negative typing results were obtained. All homozygous and heterozygous combinations of DR1-DRw18 could be distinguished. Amplification patterns segregated according to dominant Mendelian inheritance. DNA preparation, PCR amplification and post-amplification processing, including gel detection, documentation and interpretation, were performed in 2 hours. In conclusion, PCR-SSP is an accurate typing technique with high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. The method is rapid and inexpensive. DR "low-resolution" typing by the PCR-SSP technique is ideally suited for analyzing small numbers of samples simultaneously and is an alternative to serological DR typing in routine clinical practice including donor-recipient matching in cadaveric transplantations.
TL;DR: The taxonomic status of Acinetobacter spp.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION 149 TAXONOMY 149 Historical Features 149 Current Taxonomic Status 149 Delineation of Species 149 Species of Clinical Importance 150 LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION 150 Isolation from Clinical Specimens 150 Morphological, Cultural, and Metabolic Characteristics 151 Species Identification 151 NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ACINETOBACTER SPP. 152 Overview 152 Respiratory Infection 152 Bacteremia 153 Meningitis 153 Urinary Tract Infection 154 Other Miscellaneous Infections 154 PATHOGENESIS OF ACINETOBACTER INFECTIONS 154 Predisposing Factors 154 Virulence of Acinetobacter spp. 154 EPIDEMIOLOGY 155 Human Carriage 155 Persistence in the Hospital Environment 155 TYPING SYSTEMS 156 Biotyping 156 Antibiograms 156 Serotyping 156 Phage Typing 157 Bacteriocin Typing 157 Protein Profiles 157 Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoretic Typing 157 Plasmid Profiles 157 Analysis by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis 157 Ribotyping 157 PCR-Based Methods 158 CLINICAL ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 158 BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC MECHANISMS OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 158 Genetics of Resistance 158 b-Lactams 159 Aminoglycosides 159 Quinolones 160 Other Antibiotics 160 THERAPY OF ACINETOBACTER INFECTIONS 160 CONCLUSIONS 160 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 161 REFERENCES 161
TL;DR: A PCR typing method was devised in which each human serotype virus produced a characteristic segment size, readily identifiable in agarose gels, which provided a rapid and efficient means of obtaining large quantities of cDNA suitable for sequencing, cloning, and other genetic studies, precluding the need for cell culture and virus purification.
Abstract: The rotavirus gene segment coding for the major outer capsid glycoprotein vp7 was amplified directly from stool specimens by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Double-stranded RNA extracted from stool samples was used as the template for reverse transcription, which was followed immediately and in the same reaction mix with amplification, using the Taq polymerase. Various conditions were examined to optimize the yield of the amplified gene. The concentrations of MgCl2, dimethyl sulfoxide, and template RNA were critical. The choice of primer pairs allowed amplification of the entire segment or specific portions. By using type-specific primers derived from distinct regions on the gene, we devised a PCR typing method in which each human serotype virus produced a characteristic segment size, readily identifiable in agarose gels. The PCR typing method was applied to 10 rotavirus reference strains, including all 6 known human serotypes (serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 9), and to 34 stool specimens previously serotyped by an enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies. An absolute correlation was found between the molecular and serologic methods. In addition, 14 stool specimens nonserotypable by an enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies could be typed by the PCR method. Besides the application for rotavirus detection and typing directly from stools, the PCR method provides a rapid and efficient means of obtaining large quantities of cDNA suitable for sequencing, cloning, and other genetic studies, precluding the need for cell culture and virus purification.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used sequence typing of the spa gene repeat region to study the epidemiology of MRSA at a German university hospital during two periods of 10 and 4 months, respectively.
Abstract: The spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus encodes protein A and is used for typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) We used sequence typing of the spa gene repeat region to study the epidemiology of MRSA at a German university hospital One hundred seven and 84 strains were studied during two periods of 10 and 4 months, respectively Repeats and spa types were determined by Ridom StaphType, a novel software tool allowing rapid repeat determination, data management and retrieval, and Internet-based assignment of new spa types following automatic quality control of DNA sequence chromatograms Isolates representative of the most abundant spa types were subjected to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis One of two predominant spa types was replaced by a clonally related variant in the second study period Ten unique spa types, which were equally distributed in both study periods, were recovered The data show a rapid dynamics of clone circulation in a university hospital setting spa typing was valuable for tracking of epidemic isolates The data show that disproval of epidemiologically suggested transmissions of MRSA is one of the main objectives of spa typing in departments with a high incidence of MRSA
TL;DR: The results suggest that gene 4 typing will be useful in providing more a complete characterization of HRV strains of epidemiologic or vaccine-related interest.
Abstract: Five genetically distinct human rotavirus (HRV) gene 4 groups have been described on the basis of comparative nucleotide sequencing and the predicted amino acid sequences, and at least four of them represent distinct VP4 antigenic types. To identify each gene 4 type and investigate its distribution in HRV isolates from patients with diarrhea, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing method using sequence information available for four genetically distinct gene 4 types. Rotavirus double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) isolated from stool samples were first reverse transcribed and amplified by PCR by using two oligonucleotide primers that correspond to regions that are highly conserved among all known HRV gene 4 types. The 876-bp dsDNA products were then reamplified by PCR in the presence of a cocktail containing one conserved plus-sense primer and four type-specific minus-sense primers (selected from the hypervariable region of gene 4), resulting in products of 345, 483, 267, and 391 bp corresponding to gene 4 types 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. This method reliably identified the gene 4 types of 16 well-characterized HRV isolates. Our results were independently confirmed for all 16 strains by reverse transcription and PCR amplification of HRV dsRNA in the presence of alternate type-specific primer pairs. For direct gene 4 typing of HRV in stool samples, we developed a method to extract rotavirus dsRNA from stool specimens by using glass powder. Our results suggest that gene 4 typing will be useful in providing more a complete characterization of HRV strains of epidemiologic or vaccine-related interest.
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