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Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor

About: Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7361 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 292450 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Imatinib induced a sustained objective response in more than half of patients with an advanced unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, indicating that inhibition of the KIT signal-transduction pathway is a promising treatment for advanced gastrointestinalStromal tumors, which resist conventional chemotherapy.
Abstract: Background Constitutive activation of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is critical in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown in preclinical models and preliminary clinical studies to have activity against such tumors. Methods We conducted an open-label, randomized, multicenter trial to evaluate the activity of imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor. We assessed antitumor response and the safety and tolerability of the drug. Pharmacokinetics were assessed in a subgroup of patients. Results A total of 147 patients were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg or 600 mg of imatinib daily. Overall, 79 patients (53.7 percent) had a partial response, 41 patients (27.9 percent) had stable disease, and for technical reasons, response could not be evaluated in 7 patients (4.8 percent). No patient had a complete response to the treatment. The median duration of response had not been reached after a median follow...

3,886 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One such compound, 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002, completely and specifically abolished PtdIns 3-kinase activity, which may be beneficial in the treatment of proliferative diseases as well as in elucidating the biological role of the kinase in cellular proliferation and growth factor response.
Abstract: Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase is an enzyme implicated in growth factor signal transduction by associating with receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Inhibitors of PtdIns 3-kinase could potentially give a better understanding of the function and regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme. Quercetin, a naturally occurring bioflavinoid, was previously shown to inhibit PtdIns 3-kinase with an IC50 of 1.3 microgram/ml (3.8 microM); inhibition appeared to be directed at the ATP-binding site of the kinase. Analogs of quercetin were investigated as PtdIns 3-kinase inhibitors, with the most potent ones exhibiting IC50 values in the range of 1.7-8.4 micrograms/ml. In contrast, genistein, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the isoflavone class, did not inhibit PtdIns 3-kinase significantly (IC50 > 30 micrograms/ml). Since quercetin has also been shown to inhibit other PtdIns and protein kinases, other chromones were evaluated as inhibitors of PtdIns 3-kinase without affecting PtdIns 4-kinase or selected protein kinases. One such compound, 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (also known as 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenylchromone, LY294002), completely and specifically abolished PtdIns 3-kinase activity (IC50 = 0.43 microgram/ml; 1.40 microM) but did not inhibit PtdIns 4-kinase or tested protein and lipid kinases. Analogs of LY294002 demonstrated a very selective structure-activity relationship, with slight changes in structure causing marked decreases in inhibition. LY294002 was shown to completely abolish PtdIns 3-kinase activity in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated human neutrophils, as well as inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells in cultured rabbit aortic segments. Since PtdIns 3-kinase appears to be centrally involved with growth factor signal transduction, the development of specific inhibitors against the kinase may be beneficial in the treatment of proliferative diseases as well as in elucidating the biological role of the kinase in cellular proliferation and growth factor response.

3,286 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Continuous daily administration of sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and the objective response rate as compared with placebo among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Abstract: The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials.

1,978 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a group of mesenchymal neoplasms that arise from precursors of the connective-tissue cells of the gastrointestinal tract that occur predominantly in middle-aged and older persons.
Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a group of mesenchymal neoplasms that arise from precursors of the connective-tissue cells of the gastrointestinal tract.1 They occur predominantly in middle-aged and older persons, and approximately 70 percent of the tumors are found in the stomach, 20 to 30 percent are found in the small intestine, and less than 10 percent are found elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract.1 Recent studies have shown that cells in gastrointestinal stromal tumors express a growth factor receptor with tyrosine kinase activity termed c-kit. This receptor, the product of the proto-oncogene c-kit, can be detected by immunohistochemical staining for . . .

1,953 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship established for SU11248 in these preclinical studies has aided in the design, selection, and evaluation of dosing regimens being tested in human trials.
Abstract: One challenging aspect in the clinical development of molecularly targeted therapies, which represent a new and promising approach to treating cancers, has been the identification of a biologically active dose rather than a maximum tolerated dose. The goal of the present study was to identify a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship in preclinical models that could be used to help guide selection of a clinical dose. SU11248, a novel small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with direct antitumor as well as antiangiogenic activity via targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), KIT, and FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinases, was used as the pharmacological agent in these studies. In mouse xenograft models, SU11248 exhibited broad and potent antitumor activity causing regression, growth arrest, or substantially reduced growth of various established xenografts derived from human or rat tumor cell lines. To predict the target SU11248 exposure required to achieve antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models, we directly measured target phosphorylation in tumor xenografts before and after SU11248 treatment and correlated this with plasma inhibitor levels. In target modulation studies in vivo , SU11248 selectively inhibited Flk-1/KDR (VEGF receptor 2) and PDGF receptor β phosphorylation (in a time- and dose-dependent manner) when plasma concentrations of inhibitor reached or exceeded 50–100 ng/ml. Similar results were obtained in a functional assay of VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vivo . Constant inhibition of VEGFR2 and PDGF receptor β phosphorylation was not required for efficacy; at highly efficacious doses, inhibition was sustained for 12 h of a 24-h dosing interval. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship established for SU11248 in these preclinical studies has aided in the design, selection, and evaluation of dosing regimens being tested in human trials.

1,941 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021396
2020424
2019392
2018390
2017388