About: Ubiquitin ligase is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15891 publications have been published within this topic receiving 996436 citations. The topic is also known as: protein ubiquitination.
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TL;DR: This review discusses recent information on functions and mechanisms of the ubiquitin system and focuses on what the authors know, and would like to know, about the mode of action of ubi...
Abstract: The selective degradation of many short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells is carried out by the ubiquitin system. In this pathway, proteins are targeted for degradation by covalent ligation to ubiquitin, a highly conserved small protein. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of regulatory proteins plays important roles in the control of numerous processes, including cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, receptor down-regulation, and endocytosis. The ubiquitin system has been implicated in the immune response, development, and programmed cell death. Abnormalities in ubiquitin-mediated processes have been shown to cause pathological conditions, including malignant transformation. In this review we discuss recent information on functions and mechanisms of the ubiquitin system. Since the selectivity of protein degradation is determined mainly at the stage of ligation to ubiquitin, special attention is focused on what we know, and would like to know, about the mode of action of ubiquitin-protein ligation systems and about signals in proteins recognized by these systems.
TL;DR: It is found that human pVHL binds to a short HIF-derived peptide when a conserved proline residue at the core of this peptide is hydroxylated, which may play a key role in mammalian oxygen sensing.
Abstract: HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to changes in oxygen availability. In the presence of oxygen, HIF is targeted for destruction by an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). We found that human pVHL binds to a short HIF-derived peptide when a conserved proline residue at the core of this peptide is hydroxylated. Because proline hydroxylation requires molecular oxygen and Fe(2+), this protein modification may play a key role in mammalian oxygen sensing.
TL;DR: It is clear now that degradation of cellular proteins is a highly complex, temporally controlled, and tightly regulated process that plays major roles in a variety of basic pathways during cell life and death as well as in health and disease.
Abstract: Between the 1960s and 1980s, most life scientists focused their attention on studies of nucleic acids and the translation of the coded information. Protein degradation was a neglected area, conside...
TL;DR: Recent findings reveal that all known E3s utilize one of just two catalytic domains--a HECT domain or a RING finger--and crystal structures have provided the first detailed views of an active site of each type.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The conjugation of ubiquitin to other cellular proteins regulates a broad range of eukaryotic cell functions. The high efficiency and exquisite selectivity of ubiquitination reactions reflect the properties of enzymes known as ubiquitin-protein ligases or E3s. An E3 recognizes its substrates based on the presence of a specific ubiquitination signal, and catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a substrate (or ubiquitin) lysine residue and the C terminus of ubiquitin. Although a great deal is known about the molecular basis of E3 specificity, much less is known about molecular mechanisms of catalysis by E3s. Recent findings reveal that all known E3s utilize one of just two catalytic domains—a HECT domain or a RING finger—and crystal structures have provided the first detailed views of an active site of each type. The new findings shed light on many aspects of E3 structure, function, and mechanism, but also emphasize that key features of E3 catalysis remain to be elucidated.
TL;DR: Two genes encode ubiquitin ligases that are potential drug targets for the treatment of muscle atrophy, and mice deficient in either MAFbx orMuRF1 were found to be resistant to atrophy.
Abstract: Skeletal muscle adapts to decreases in activity and load by undergoing atrophy. To identify candidate molecular mediators of muscle atrophy, we performed transcript profiling. Although many genes were up-regulated in a single rat model of atrophy, only a small subset was universal in all atrophy models. Two of these genes encode ubiquitin ligases: Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1), and a gene we designate Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx), the latter being a member of the SCF family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Overexpression of MAFbx in myotubes produced atrophy, whereas mice deficient in either MAFbx or MuRF1 were found to be resistant to atrophy. These proteins are potential drug targets for the treatment of muscle atrophy.
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