About: Ultrasound is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12275 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 242831 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Ultrasonic Waves.
TL;DR: This study confirms earlier animal and clinical studies that demonstrated the efficacy of low-intensity ultrasound stimulation in the acceleration of the normal fracture-repair process.
Abstract: Sixty-seven closed or grade-I open fractures of the tibial shaft were examined in a prospective, randomized, double-blind evaluation of use of a new ultrasound stimulating device as an adjunct to conventional treatment with a cast. Thirty-three fractures were treated with the active device and thirty-four, with a placebo control device. At the end of the treatment, there was a statistically significant decrease in the time to clinical healing (86 +/- 5.8 days in the active-treatment group compared with 114 +/- 10.4 days in the control group) (p = 0.01) and also a significant decrease in the time to over-all (clinical and radiographic) healing (96 +/- 4.9 days in the active-treatment group compared with 154 +/- 13.7 days in the control group) (p = 0.0001). The patients' compliance with the use of the device was excellent, and there were no serious complications related to its use. This study confirms earlier animal and clinical studies that demonstrated the efficacy of low-intensity ultrasound stimulation in the acceleration of the normal fracture-repair process.
TL;DR: Clinical ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) has shown significant potential as an aid in diagnoses of ocular disease and the ability to define the relationship of the iris, posterior chamber, zonules, ciliary body, and lens is potentially helpful in understanding mechanisms of glaucoma.
Abstract: The authors have developed a method of obtaining images of cross-sections of the intact anterior globe at microscopic resolution. High-frequency ultrasound transducers (50-100 MHz) have been developed and incorporated into a clinical B-scan device capable of producing images in the living human eye to a depth of approximately 4 mm at an axial and lateral resolution approaching 20 microns. Clinical use of this instrument is no more difficult than conventional immersion ultrasonography. The authors' results in a series of 14 clinical cases have shown that this method can provide information unavailable from any other imaging technique. Anterior segment tumors difficult to define with conventional ultrasound can be measured and the extent of invasion determined. Differentiation of tissue on the basis of internal acoustic characteristics is aided by the very fine backscatter speckle patterns at these frequencies. Pathology behind anterior segment opacities can be imaged in detail and the ability to image angle structures in cross-section allows a new quantitative method of gonioscopy. The ability to define the relationship of the iris, posterior chamber, zonules, ciliary body, and lens is potentially helpful in understanding mechanisms of glaucoma. Ocular structures can be measured with increased accuracy. Clinical ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) has shown significant potential as an aid in diagnoses of ocular disease.
TL;DR: A review article describes the developments of a number of 3D ultrasound imaging systems using mechanical, free-hand and 2D array scanning techniques and the sources of errors in the reconstruction techniques as well as formulae relating design specification to geometric errors.
Abstract: Ultrasound is an inexpensive and widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of a number of diseases. In the past two decades, it has benefited from major advances in technology and has become an indispensable imaging modality, due to its flexibility and non-invasive character. In the last decade, research investigators and commercial companies have further advanced ultrasound imaging with the development of 3D ultrasound. This new imaging approach is rapidly achieving widespread use with numerous applications. The major reason for the increase in the use of 3D ultrasound is related to the limitations of 2D viewing of 3D anatomy, using conventional ultrasound. This occurs because: (a) Conventional ultrasound images are 2D, yet the anatomy is 3D, hence the diagnostician must integrate multiple images in his mind. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. (b) The 2D ultrasound image represents a thin plane at some arbitrary angle in the body. It is difficult to localize the image plane and reproduce it at a later time for follow-up studies. In this review article we describe how 3D ultrasound imaging overcomes these limitations. Specifically, we describe the developments of a number of 3D ultrasound imaging systems using mechanical, free-hand and 2D array scanning techniques. Reconstruction and viewing methods of the 3D images are described with specific examples. Since 3D ultrasound is used to quantify the volume of organs and pathology, the sources of errors in the reconstruction techniques as well as formulae relating design specification to geometric errors are provided. Finally, methods to measure organ volume from the 3D ultrasound images and sources of errors are described.