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About: UNIQUAC is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2908 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 53973 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
D. S. Abrams1, John M. Prausnitz1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1975-Aiche Journal
Abstract: To obtain a semi-theoretical equation for the excess Gibbs energy of a liquid mixture, Guggenheim's quasi-chemical analysis is generalized through introduction of the local area fraction as the primary concentration variable. The resulting universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) equation uses only two adjustable parameters per binary. Extension to multicomponent systems requires no ternary (or higher) parameters. The UNIQUAC equation gives good representation of both vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and multicomponent mixtures containing a variety of nonelectrolyte components such as hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, amines, alcohols, nitriles, etc., and water. When well-defined simplifying assumptions are introduced into the generalized quasi-chemical treatment, the UNIQUAC equation reduces to any one of several well-known equations for the excess Gibbs energy, including the Wilson, Margules, van Laar, and NRTL equations. The effects of molecular size and shape are introduced through structural parameters obtained from pure-component data and through use of Staverman's combinatorial entropy as a boundary condition for athermal mixtures. The UNIQUAC equation, therefore, is applicable also to polymer solutions. more

3,856 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1975-Aiche Journal
Abstract: A group-contribution method is presented for the prediction of activity coefficients in nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. The method combines the solution-of-functional-groups concept with a model for activity coefficients based on an extension of the quasi chemical theory of liquid mixtures (UNIQUAC). The resulting UNIFAC model (UNIQUAC Functional-group Activity Coefficients) contains two adjustable parameters per pair of functional groups. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, activity coefficients in a large number of binary and multicomponent mixtures may be predicted, often with good accuracy. This is demonstrated for mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, nitriles, ketones, amines, and other organic fluids in the temperature range 275° to 400°K. more

2,607 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10 ∘C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good perspectives for decreasing the energy requirement. However, a scientific understanding of the processes is required. The properties of the NH3- CO2- H2O system were described using the Extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model developed by Thomsen and Rasmussen in a temperature range from 0 to 110 ∘C and pressure up to 100 bars [1] . The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that an energy requirement for the desorber lower than 2 GJ/ton CO2 can be reached. more

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A comprehensive model has been developed for the calculation of speciation, phase equilibria, enthalpies, heat capacities and densities in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems. The model incorporates chemical equilibria to account for chemical speciation in multiphase, multicomponent systems. For this purpose, the model combines standard-state thermochemical properties of solution species with an expression for the excess Gibbs energy. The excess Gibbs energy model incorporates a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer–Debye–Huckel equation, a short-range interaction term expressed by the UNIQUAC model and a middle-range, second virial coefficient-type term for the remaining ionic interactions. The standard-state properties are calculated by using the Helgeson– Kirkham–Flowers equation of state for species at infinite dilution in water and by constraining the model to reproduce the Gibbs energy of transfer between various solvents. The model is capable of accurately reproducing various types of experimental data for systems including aqueous electrolyte solutions ranging from infinite dilution to fused salts, electrolytes in organic or mixed, water + organic, solvents up to the solubility limit and acid–water mixtures in the full concentration range. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. more

278 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

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