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Upstream activating sequence

About: Upstream activating sequence is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1633 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 100112 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that CBF1 can function as a transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE DNA regulatory element and, thus, is likely to have a role in cold- and dehydration-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis.
Abstract: Recent efforts have defined a cis-acting DNA regulatory element in plants, the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (DRE), that stimulates transcription in response to low temperature and water deficit. Here we report the isolation of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA that encodes a C-repeat/DRE binding factor, CBF1 (C-repeat/DRE Binding Factor 1). Analysis of the deduced CBF1 amino acid sequence indicates that the protein has a molecular mass of 24 kDa, a potential nuclear localization sequence, and a possible acidic activation domain. CBF1 also has an AP2 domain, which is a DNA-binding motif of about 60 aa present in the Arabidopsis proteins APETALA2, AINTEGUMENTA, and TINY; the tobacco ethylene response element binding proteins; and numerous other plant proteins of unknown function. The transcript levels for CBF1, which appears to be a single or low copy number gene, did not change appreciably in plants exposed to low temperature or in detached leaves subjected to water deficit. Binding of CBF1 to the C-repeat/DRE was demonstrated in gel shift assays using recombinant CBF1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, expression of CBF1 in yeast was found to activate transcription of reporter genes containing the C-repeat/DRE as an upstream activator sequence but not mutant versions of the DNA element. We conclude that CBF1 can function as a transcriptional activator that binds to the C-repeat/DRE DNA regulatory element and, thus, is likely to have a role in cold- and dehydration-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis.

1,552 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1983-Cell
TL;DR: Results suggest that direct binding of Sp 1 to sequences in the upstream promoter element is the mechanism by which this factor activates transcription by RNA polymerase II at the SV40 early promoter.
Abstract: Fractionation of HeLa cell extracts reveals the presence of a promoter-specific transcription factor, Sp 1, which activates a class of promoters that includes the SV40 early promoter but not several others that have been tested. We analyzed SV40 early-promoter deletion mutants and determined that transcriptional activation by Sp 1 requires sequences within tandem 21 bp repeats located 70-110 bp upstream of the transcription initiation sites. In a DNAase footprinting assay, Sp 1 protected sequences in this same 21 bp repeat region, thus indicating the presence of a specific site for Sp 1 binding. During purification of Sp 1, there was a correlation between transcription-stimulatory activity and promoter-binding activity. These results suggest that direct binding of Sp 1 to sequences in the upstream promoter element is the mechanism by which this factor activates transcription by RNA polymerase II at the SV40 early promoter.

1,278 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Delineation of these two cooperative regions explains at the level of transcription how IFN-gamma and LPS act in concert to induce maximally the mac-NOS gene and, furthermore, howIFN-Gamma augments the inflammatory response to LPS.
Abstract: The promoter region of the mouse gene for macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase (mac-NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) has been characterized. A putative TATA box is 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Computer analysis reveals numerous potential binding sites for transcription factors, many of them associated with stimuli that induce mac-NOS expression. To localize functionally important portions of the regulatory region, we constructed deletion mutants of the mac-NOS 5' flanking region and placed them upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, when transfected with a minimal promoter construct, expresses little luciferase activity when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or both. Maximal expression depends on two discrete regulatory regions upstream of the putative TATA box. Region I (position -48 to -209) increases luciferase activity approximately 75-fold over the minimal promoter construct. Region I contains LPS-related responsive elements, including a binding site for nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) and the kappa B binding site for NF-kappa B, suggesting that this region regulates LPS-induced expression of the mac-NOS gene. Region II (position -913 to -1029) alone does not increase luciferase expression, but together with region I it causes an additional 10-fold increase in expression. Together the two regions increase expression 750-fold over activity obtained from a minimal promoter construct. Region II contains motifs for binding IFN-related transcription factors and thus probably is responsible for IFN-mediated regulation of LPS-induced mac-NOS. Delineation of these two cooperative regions explains at the level of transcription how IFN-gamma and LPS act in concert to induce maximally the mac-NOS gene and, furthermore, how IFN-gamma augments the inflammatory response to LPS.

1,070 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that cold-induced expression of CRT/DRE-containing COR genes involves a low temperature-stimulated signalling cascade in which CBF gene induction is an early event and theCBF gene family is not subject to autoregulation.
Abstract: Cold-induced expression of the Arabidopsis COR (cold-regulated) genes is mediated by a DNA regulatory element termed the CRT (C-repeat)/DRE (dehydration-responsive element). Recently, we identified a transcriptional activator, CBF1, that binds to the CRT/DRE and demonstrated that its overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants at non-acclimating temperatures induces COR gene expression and increases plant freezing tolerance. Here we report that CBF1 belongs to a small family of closely related proteins which includes CBF2 and CBF3. DNA sequencing of an 8.7 kb region of the Arabidopsis genome along with genetic mapping experiments indicated that the three CBF genes are organized in direct repeat on chromosome 4 at 72.8 cM, closely linked to molecular markers PG11 and m600. Like CBF1, both CBF2 and CBF3 activated expression of reporter genes in yeast that contained the CRT/DRE as an upstream activator sequence. The transcript levels for all three CBF genes increased within 15 min of transferring plants to low temperature, followed by accumulation of COR gene transcripts at about 2 h. CBF transcripts also accumulated rapidly in response to mechanical agitation. The promoter regions of the CBF genes do not contain the CRT sequence, CCGAC, and overexpression of CBF1 did not have a detectable effect on CBF3 transcript levels, suggesting that the CBF gene family is not subject to autoregulation. We propose that cold-induced expression of CRT/DRE-containing COR genes involves a low temperature-stimulated signalling cascade in which CBF gene induction is an early event.

988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that a stringent chemical control of transcription can be achieved in plants with the GVG system, and can also be regulated by DEX in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.
Abstract: A novel chemical induction system for transcription in plants has been developed, taking advantage of the regulatory mechanism of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors. A chimeric transcription of the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4, the transactivating domain of the herpes viral protein VP16, and the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The GVG gene was introduced into transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis together with a luciferase (Luc) gene which was transcribed from a promoter containing six tandem copies of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence. Induction of luciferase activity was observed when the transgenic tobacco plants were grown on an agar medium containing dexamethasone (DEX), a strong synthetic glucocorticoid. Induction levels of the luciferase activity were well correlated with DEX concentrations in the range from 0.1 to 10 microM and the maximum expression level was over 100 times that of the basal level. Analysis of the induction kinetics by Northern blot analysis showed that the Luc mRNA was first detected 1 h after DEX treatment and increased to the maximum level in 4 h. The stationary induction level and the duration of the induction varied with the glucocorticoid derivative used. The GVG gene activity can also be regulated by DEX in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The results indicate that a stringent chemical control of transcription can be achieved in plants with the GVG system. Advantages and potential uses of this system are also discussed.

925 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20218
20206
20196
20186
201712
201615